Qachon va qaerda uchta mastli kema ixtiro qilingan?

Qachon va qaerda uchta mastli kema ixtiro qilingan?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Do'stim bilan men "Tarix" fanidan uch ustunli kemalar (va ular kashfiyot safarlarini qanday o'zgartirishgani) haqida gapiradigan topshiriq oldik, biz hozir bir necha soat davomida googling bilan shug'ullanyapmiz, lekin ko'p ma'lumot topa olmayapmiz (biz ham Boshqa sinfdoshlarimizdan so'ramang, chunki bizda har xil mavzular bor).

Kimdir bir nechta manbalarni yoki quyidagi savollarning biriga yoki bir nechtasiga javob bera oladimi?

  • Ular qayerda, qachon va kim tomonidan ixtiro qilingan

  • Ularning ixtirosi kashfiyot safarlarini qanday o'zgartirdi?

  • Har qanday qo'shimcha ma'lumot…


Bu rivojlanishni tushunish uchun, avvalo, turli suzib yuruvchi qurilmalarni muhokama qilish kerak. Bundan tashqari, suzib yurish rejasining turli xil qarorlarining oqibatlarini tushunish uchun siz buni tushunishingiz kerak suzish nuqtalari, dan yaqin tashilgan, orqali nurga erishish, ga yugurish.

Qachon shamoldan oldin yugurish yelkanli kema juda qulay, pastki tekis, korpus suvda barqaror va to'lqin harakati minimal. Biroq, siz faqat shamolga tusha olasiz, va hech qachon shamolning tezligi kabi. Agar shabada atigi 3 tugun bo'lsa, u holda 2 yoki 2,5 kema bora oladigan tezlikda bo'ladi. Kvadrat shaklidagi kemalar bu suzib yurish nuqtasi uchun juda mos keladi, burg'ining o'zi yuqorida aytib o'tilgan foydali atributlar ustida barqaror. Harakatni minimallashtirish va tezlikni maksimal darajada oshirish uchun, yelkan (lar) qayiq atrofida bo'lishi kerak. Viking kemalari bu turdagi kemalarga xosdir.

Vaqt o'tishi bilan, dengizchilar yelkan va tayanchni shamolga burish uchun choyshablardan (ya'ni arqonlardan emas, balki yelkanlardan) foydalanib, shamolga, shuningdek, orqaga o'rnatilgan rulda, yelkanli nuqtalarni to'g'ri shamoldan bir necha daraja pastga tushirish mumkinligini tushunishdi. erishildi. Yana ham hayratlanarli tomoni shundaki, qayiq endi suzishga qodir edi shamolning o'zidan tezroq. Tovoqning engil poshnali va to'lqin harakatining kuchayishi taqqoslashda juda kichik noqulaylik edi.

Kvadrat shaklidagi idishlar uchun bu daromadning chegarasi nurga yaqin yoki juda oz miqdorda olinadi yaqin masofada. Garchi kemalar shamolning 60 darajagacha yaqinida ishora qila olsalar -da bo'sh joy uchrashishini ta'minladi tezligi yaxshi bo'ldi shamolga eng yaxshisi minimal edi. Har qanday noqulay to'lqin harakatida VMG salbiy bo'lar edi, va kema langar tashlab, qulayroq sharoitlarni kutgani ma'qul edi. Shu sababli, tez-tez portda yoki tashqarisida to'rtburchaklar shaklidagi idishlar tiqilib qolishi haqida eshitiladi. qulay shamol kutmoqda. Angliyaning janubidagi katta to'lqinlar, Xovkins va Dreyk otryadlariga, Armada topilganda, shamolning engil noqulay sharoitlariga qaramay, dengizda yurishga imkon berdi!

To'liq shamol bo'ylab suzish uchun kema kerak oldinga va orqaga burg'ulash, yoki gaff yoki kech yelkanli. Bu qurilmalar katta aerodinamikani hosil qiladi ko'tarish yelkanlardan, qachonki kema ham gidrodinamikaga ega bo'lsa ko'tarish samolyotni 45 gradusgacha (ba'zi yuqori texnologiyali zamonaviy kemalar uchun 30 daraja) shamolni samarali boshqarishga imkon beradi. Shamol tezligiga nisbatan eng yuqori tezlik nur cho'qqisiga etib borgan sari tobora kamayib bormoqda, lekin agar yo'l yaxshi mo'ljallangan qayiq bilan boshqarilsa, shamol siljishlarini ushlab turish natijasida VMG shamolining ko'tarilishi sezilarli bo'ladi. Kema yelkanning bu nuqtasida yaxshi to'plangan, boshqara olish qiyinroq va to'lqin ta'siridan ko'proq azob chekadi, lekin shamolni kutishning hojati yo'q.

Xo'sh, hamma narsaga qaramay, nima uchun uch ustunli kemalar? Chunki bu bitta kemaga bir nechta burg'uni birlashtirishga imkon berdi. Nazariy jihatdan bitta katta ustun eng samarali, lekin bu faqat kichik ekipajli uglerodli tolali ustunlar uchun ishlaydi. Yog'och ustunli yog'och kema, bir nechta ustunlar bilan yanada katta suzib yurish maydoniga erishadi. Kemani oldinga va kamonni oldinga siljitib, kamonni suvga tushmasligini ta'minlash uchun mizzen ustidagi yelkanlar bilan muvozanatlashgan holda, hatto kvadrat quruvchi ham shamolni yuqoriga ko'tarishi mumkin.


Menga shuni ta'kidladilarki, ekipajning minimal hajmi yelkanning umumiy maydoniga emas, balki eng katta yelkanining hajmiga bog'liq. Shunday qilib, ko'p ustunli va har bir ustunga mayda yelkanlari ko'p bo'lgan to'rtburchaklar idishlar juda kichik ekipajlar tomonidan dengizga munosib tarzda ishlov berilishi mumkin edi. Shamolga qarab yugurish paytida gib-giblar haqida qayg'urishning hojati yo'q, bunday kemalar ko'pincha savdo shamollarini ishlatadigan savdo kemalari uchun ideal edi.

Uyg'onish davridan keyingi Evropa navigatsiyasining rivojlanishi haqida ko'proq ma'lumot. Navigatsiya o'z -o'zidan Uch ustunli kemalar kerak emas edi, lekin bu dizaynlar (karak, karavel va gallon orqali ishlab chiqilgan) evropaliklar tomonidan kashfiyot davriga kirganida eng okeanga loyiq edi.


Carrack - bu 15 -asrda ispan, portugal va italiyaliklar tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan uchta mastli kema.

Uning oldingi kemalarga nisbatan afzalligi shundaki, u kattaroq edi va ko'proq dengizchilarni sig'dira olardi va bu faqat O'rta (yoki Shimoliy yoki Boltiq) dengizlarini emas, balki Atlantika va Hind okeanlarini kesib o'tishi mumkin bo'lgan okean kemasi edi.


Clipper kemasi

Tahririyatimiz siz yuborgan narsalarni ko'rib chiqadi va maqolani qayta ko'rib chiqish kerakligini aniqlaydi.

Clipper kemasi, XIX asr klassik yelkanli kema, o'zining go'zalligi, inoyat va tezligi bilan mashhur. Ko'rinib turibdiki, Baltimor qaychi deb nomlanuvchi kichik, tezkor qirg'oq paketidan boshlab, haqiqiy qaychi birinchi bo'lib Amerikada, keyinroq Britaniya hovllarida paydo bo'lgan. Oxirgi ko'rinishida, u uzun bo'yli, ingichka, oqsoqol kamonli va tuban ravon korpusga ega bo'lib, uchta baland ustun ustida yelkanning juda katta tarqalishini ko'targan edi. Tezlikka urg'u qisman mavsumning birinchi choyini Xitoydan, qisman Shimoliy Amerika bo'ylab Kaliforniya oltin konlariga quruqlik yo'li bilan olib boriladigan raqobatdan olib keldi. The Uchayotgan bulut, 1851 yilda boshlangan, Nyu -Yorkdan San -Frantsiskoga sayohatni rekord 89 kun ichida amalga oshirgan Jeyms Bayns Bostondan Liverpulgacha 12 kun 6 soat transatlantik suzib yurish rekordini o'rnatdi. The Chaqmoq 24 soat ichida 436 dengiz milini bosib o'tib, bir kunlik suzish bo'yicha rekord o'rnatdi. The Chaqmoq va Jeyms Bayns (ikkalasi ham 1854 yoki 1855 yillarda ishga tushirilgan), shuningdek Uchayotgan bulut, Kanadada tug'ilgan kema ishlab chiqaruvchi Donald MakKey tomonidan Sharqiy Bostondagi kemasozlik zavodida qurilgan.


Chiziq kemasi

Tahririyatimiz siz yuborgan narsalarni ko'rib chiqadi va maqolani qayta ko'rib chiqish kerakligini aniqlaydi.

chiziq kemasi, 17-asr o'rtalaridan 19-asr o'rtalariga qadar G'arbiy dunyodagi buyuk dengiz flotining tayanchini tashkil qilgan, bug 'bilan ishlaydigan jangovar kemaga yo'l qo'ygan suzib yuruvchi kema turi.

Chiziq kemasi uch yoki to'rt tirgakli gallondan paydo bo'ldi, uning tepasida yuqori tuzilishga ega va odatda ikkita paluba bo'ylab og'ir qurollarni olib yurardi. Bu kemalardan tashkil topgan flotlar jangovar harakatlar olib borar ekan, ular jang chizig'i deb nomlangan jangovar tuzilmani qabul qilishdi, bunda ikkita qarama -qarshi kemalar qurollarini keng o'qdan o'qqa tutish uchun manevr qilishdi (bir vaqtning o'zida kemaning bir tomoniga o'ralgan barcha qurollarni chiqarib yuborish). ) bir -biriga qarshi. Ushbu tuzilmalar yordamida kurash jang chizig'i sifatida tanilgan. Bunday janglarda, odatda, eng katta va eng kuchli qurollari bo'lgan eng og'ir kemalar g'alaba qozongan. Shunday qilib, tabiiy ravishda katta "jangovar kemalar" yoki chiziqli kemalar floti oldiga siljish bo'ldi.

17 -asrga kelib, chiziq kemasi uchta ustunga o'tirib, ustki tuzilmani yo'qotib, o'zining aniq shaklini oldi. Uzunligi 200 fut (60 metr) bunday kemalar uchun odatiy holga aylandi, ular 1200-2000 tonnani tashib yuborishdi va ekipajlari 600-800 kishidan iborat edi. Tarmoqli qurolli kema uchta paluba bo'ylab joylashtirilgan: pastki qavatli akkumulyator 30 ta to'pdan iborat bo'lishi mumkin, 32 dan 48 funtgacha to'p otadi, o'rta qavatli akkumulyatorda 24 tonnagacha to'p otilgan, yuqori batareyada 30 ta yuk ko'tarilgan. yoki undan ko'p 12 funt.

Buyuk Britaniyaning Qirollik dengiz floti, o'z yelkanli kemalarini ko'tarilgan qurollar soniga qarab baholagan, birinchi va uchinchi darajali kemalarni, ya'ni 60 yoki 70 dan 100 yoki 110 ta qurolga ega bo'lgan kemalarni chiziqli kemalar deb hisoblagan. Ulardan eng mashhurlaridan biri HMS edi G'alaba, 1805 yilda Trafalgar jangida Horatio Nelson flaqmani bo'lgan 100-qurolli birinchi rater.Qarang G'alaba.)

Urush chizig'ini taktikasini aniqlaydigan ustunli tuzilmalar inglizlar tomonidan 17-asrning oxirida ishlab chiqilgan va keyinchalik ko'pchilik dengiz flotlari tomonidan ishlatila boshlangan. Ushbu taktikada, flotdagi har bir kema oldidagi kema ortidan ergashdi. Kemalar bir -birining ketidan ketma -ket 100 yoki undan ko'p yard oralig'ida, 12 mil (19 km) gacha cho'ziladigan masofaga joylashdilar. Bu shakllanish keng qirg'oqning yangi o'q otish kuchini maksimal darajada oshirdi va yakka tartibdagi kemalar bir -birlarini urish, bortga chiqish va hokazo orqali bitta jangga kirishga intilgan gala urushi taktikasi bilan yakuniy tanaffusni belgiladi. Jang davomida chiziqni saqlab, flot tutun bulutlarini qorong'ulashiga qaramay, admiral nazorati ostida bo'linma vazifasini bajarishi mumkin edi. Qaytish sodir bo'lganda, ular minimal xavf bilan olib tashlanishi mumkin edi.

Ushbu maqola yaqinda katta muharrir Robert Kerli tomonidan qayta ko'rib chiqilgan va yangilangan.


Kemalar va qayiqlar sayohat qilish uchun, qurolli kuchlar tomonidan bizning mudofaa uchun, baliq ovlash, mamlakatlar o'rtasida yuk tashish, hordiq chiqarish, sport va dam olish uchun ishlatiladi.

Ayrim joylarda daryo va ko'llar orqali odamlar va yuklarni tashish uchun sallar hozir ham ishlatiladi. Getty Images

Ko'p ming yillar ilgari, bir nechta yog'ochni sudraluvchilar bilan bog'lab yasalgan sal, odam boshqaradigan birinchi turdagi suv transporti edi.

Keyinchalik odamlar birinchi haqiqiy qayiqlarni yog'ochdan yasalgan teshiklar yordamida yasashdi.

Yog'ochning o'rtasini bo'shatish orqali qilingan qayiq. Getty Images

Savatga o'xshab qurilgan va hayvonlarning terisi bilan qoplangan ramkali qayiq, yana erta qayiq edi. Qatron qoplamasi qayiqni suv o'tkazmaydigan qilib qo'ydi.

Miloddan avvalgi 4000 yil

Qadimgi Misrda qayiq quruvchilar, ehtimol, birinchi yelkanli qayiqlarni qurishda qamish ishlatgan. Misr qamish qayiqlari mast va yelkanli bo'lib, Nil daryosida ishlatilgan.

Miloddan avvalgi 2500 yilga kelib

Misrliklar okeanlar bo'ylab suzib o'tadigan yog'och qayiqlarni qurishgan.

Miloddan avvalgi 1550 yildan miloddan avvalgi 300 yilgacha

Finikiyaliklar (qadimgi Kan'on tsivilizatsiyasiga mansub odamlar-hozirgi Livan va Suriyadagi odamlar) sayohatga, savdo-sotiq qilish va qo'shnilari bilan jang qilish uchun odamlar boshqaradigan yelkanli kemadan foydalanganlar.

Viking uzun qayiqlari. Getty Images

Milodiy 1000 yil

Bu kemalarda yelkanlari bor edi, shuningdek, kemani eshkak eshgan 60 tagacha eshkakchi bor edi. Uzun qayiqlar uzun va tor edi, shuning uchun ular ochiq dengizda, shuningdek daryolar bo'ylab sayohat qilishlari mumkin edi.

Milodiy 1100 yil

Xitoylik junklar qayiqni boshqaradigan rul bilan suzib yurgan qayiqlarni, katta kuch berish uchun yelkanli tayoqchalarni va g'arbiy kemalarga ega bo'lishidan ancha oldin suv o'tkazmaydigan bo'linmalar edi. Ular jang qilishar va kemalarni tashishardi.

Uch va to'rtta ustunli suzib yuruvchi kemalar. © Getty

1450 yildan keyin

Uch va to'rtta ustunli yelkanli kemalar bir necha asrlar davomida xizmatda bo'lgan. Bu yog'och kemalar jangovar kema sifatida, tadqiqotchilar tomonidan va mamlakatdan mamlakatga yuk tashuvchi savdo kemalari sifatida ishlatilgan.

Kristofer Kolumb Ispaniyadan Amerikaga sayohatlari davomida karavellarda suzib ketdi © iStock

The karavel, kichik, tez va manevr qilish osonroq bo'lgan kema, avvalgi suzib yuruvchi kemalarga qaraganda, portugallar tomonidan qurilgan. Navigator Genri nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan Portugal shahzodasi Genri ixtirochi deb aytiladi. (Balki bu haqiqat emas!) Lekin ular portugallar tomonidan Afrika qirg'oqlarini o'rganish uchun ishlatilgan.

Clipper kemalari eski uslubdagi yelkanli kemalarga qaraganda tezroq edi

1800 -yillar

1800 -yillarda "qaychi kema" deb nomlangan tez suzuvchi kemalar qurildi. Ularning uzun, ingichka qobiqlari va baland ustunlari bor edi.

Bug 'va shamol energiyasi ham shunga o'xshash kemalarda ishlatilgan.

Atlantika okeanini kesib o'tgan birinchi paroxodlar bug 'va shamol energiyasini birlashtirdi.

Katta pervanellar okeanlar bo'ylab temir kemalarni boshqargan

Bu vaqtdan boshlab temirdan yasalgan va pervanel bilan boshqariladigan birinchi okean kemalari qurila boshladi. Pervaneler kema tagida, kemaning orqa (orqa) qismida suv ostida edi.

1880 -yillar

Bu kabi qayiqlar asosan daryo transportida ishlatilgan

Bug 'bilan boshqariladigan daryo qayiqlarining orqa belkuraklari bor edi va ularni "g'ildirakli g'ildiraklar" deb atashgan, boshqalarida esa har ikki tomonida ham belkurak g'ildiraklari bo'lgan.

1910 yilda okean laynerlari neftdan foydalanishga o'tdilar

Ko'mir yoqadigan suzib yuruvchi kemalar bug 'o'rniga neft ishlatib, dizel yoqilg'isiga aylantirildi.

Havo kemasi suv ustida havo yostig'ida suzadi. Getty Images

Hoverkraft havo yostiqchalari ustida to'lqinlar ustida suzishi mumkin va soatiga 140 km tezlikka qodir edi.

Zamonaviy hoverkraft g'oyasi 1950 -yillarning boshlarida o'zining hoverkraft dizaynining bir nechta modelini yaratgan Kristofer Kokerelldan keldi. Uning samolyotida dvigatel o'rnatilgan bo'lib, u kemaning old qismidan pastdagi bo'shliqqa uchib ketishi mumkin edi, bu esa ko'tarish va harakatlanishni birlashtiradi. Garchi u o'zining hoverkraft g'oyalarini harbiylarga taqdim etgan bo'lsa -da, ularni qiziqtirmagan.

Atom energiyasi 1959 yilda yuk kemalarini quvvatlantirish uchun ishlatiladi

N.S. Birinchi yadroviy yuk tashuvchi kemalardan biri bo'lgan Savanna uch yarim yil davomida yonilg'i quyishsiz suzishga muvaffaq bo'ldi.

Gidrofoil asosan feribot yoki suv taksisi sifatida ishlatiladi. Getti

1980 -yillar

Gidrofoil feribot yoki suv taksisi sifatida ishlatiladi. Gidrofoil qayiqni suvdan olib tashlaydigan qanotlarga minadi, shuning uchun u tezlik bilan chang'ida yuradi.

Konteyner kemalari yuk tashishadi. Getty Images

Konteyner kemalari yuklarni kemaning ustki qismiga joylashtirilgan ulkan metall qutilarga tashadilar. Zamonaviy yuk kemasi ming konteynerni tashiy oladi.

Barcha konteynerlarning o'lchamlari bir xil va ular maxsus kranlar o'rnatilgan portlarda tushiriladi. Bu konteynerlar yuk mashinalariga yuklanib, portdan olib ketiladi.

Hozirgacha qurilgan eng yirik kemalar orasida bu supertankerlar neft tashishda ishlatiladi.

Kruiz kemalari suzuvchi shaharlarga o'xshaydi. Getty Images

1990 va 2000 yillar

Kruiz laynerlari - bu suzuvchi ta'tillarda yuzlab odamlarni olib ketadigan kemalar. Restoranlar, do'konlar, kinoteatrlar va boshqa dam olish joylari bo'lgan kemada yo'lovchilar yashaydi.

Yadroviy suv osti kemasi

Zamonaviy yadroviy samolyot tashuvchilar, jangovar kreyserlar, esminetslar va atom suv osti kemalari mamlakat xavfsizligini ta'minlash va uning hududini himoya qilish uchun ishlatiladi.

Kruiz kemasi haqida videoni tomosha qiling:

Agar siz ulardan birortasini o'z ishingizda ishlatsangiz, bibliografiyadagi manbani quyidagicha tan oling:

Tomas, Ron. & amp; Sydenham, Shirli. 2018 yil. Kemalar va qayiqlar: vaqt chizig'i. [onlayn] www.kidcyber.com.au

Bolakay

Boshlang'ich o'quvchilar va o'qituvchilar uchun 1999 yilda tashkil etilgan www.kidcyber.com.au saytiga xush kelibsiz.

Talabalar tadqiqotlari uchun matnni tushunish oson, shu jumladan K-6 boshlang'ich sinf o'quvchilari uchun materiallar
Oson harakatlanadigan format
O'qituvchilar uchun asosiy bo'limlar bo'yicha turli mavzulardagi ish birliklari va dars rejalari
kidcyberKvestlar: o'quvchilarning tadqiqotlari, loyiha g'oyalari, baholari uchun axborot saytlariga havolalar bilan veb -so'rov topshiriqlari
Talabalar mavzu haqida aniq ma'lumot so'rashlari mumkin bo'lgan "Ketchan tadqiqotchidan so'rang" funksiyasi
Maktabda uy vazifalari va loyihalarini bajarishda ota -onalarga maslahat

O'g'il bolalar yozuvchisi va noshirlari-boshlang'ich o'qituvchi Shirley Sydenham va boshlang'ich o'qituvchi-kutubxonachi Ron Tomas. Biz o'qituvchilar va bolalar uchun Avstraliyada va chet elda nashr etilgan ko'plab kitoblarning mualliflari (yakka tartibda va boshqalar bilan). Oxirgi kitoblarga birgalikda yozilgan "Kutubxonadan foydalanish 1, 2 va 3 mavzular orqali fikrlash" (4 ta nom: Havo, olov, suv, Yer) va "Maktabning mukammal loyihasi" nashr etilgan va "Teaching Solutions" nashrida mavjud.

Bizning tomoshabin

K dan 8 gacha o'quvchilar, ularning o'qituvchilari va ota -onalari.
Uy maktab o'quvchilari va ularning ota -onalari.
O'qituvchi kutubxonachilar

Hayvonlar

Avstraliya

Oziq -ovqat va mening tanam

Odamlar va joylar

Yer sayyorasi

Bo'shliq

Sport

Texnologiya va ixtirolar

Agar Siz:
- bu mavzu bo'yicha ko'proq yordam kerak
- maktab loyihasi uchun ma'lumot kerak
- buzilgan havolalarni toping
bolakay bilan bog'laning

© 2021 www.kidcyber.com.au Biz bu qit'aning an'anaviy qo'riqchilarini va ularning oqsoqollarini, o'tmishdagi, hozirgi va rivojlanayotganlarni e'tirof etamiz va hurmat qilamiz.

Biz faxrlanamizMAHSUS SAVDO VASFASI www.indigenousliteracyfoundation.org.au va ampO'QISH UCHUN XONA www.roomtoread.org/

DISCLAIMER: xavfsiz, ta'limli onlayn tajriba manfaati uchun. kidcyber ma'lum bir mavzu haqida ko'proq ma'lumot berish uchun tanlangan va mosligi tekshirilgan boshqa veb -sahifalarga havolalar beradi. kidcyber bu saytlardagi ma'lumotlarni yoki ulardan boshqa saytlarga havolalarni nazorat qila olmaydi, bu ba'zi odamlar tomonidan nomaqbul deb topilishi mumkin. kidcyber nomaqbul saytlar uchun javobgarlikka tortilishi mumkin emas Eslatma: bolalarni o'ldirish bilan bog'liq barcha mavzular muntazam tekshiriladi, yangilanadi va qo'shiladi, shuning uchun ushbu veb -saytni tekshirishni davom eting.


Qachon va qaerda uchta mastli kema ixtiro qilingan? - Tarix

Kema turlarining rivojlanishi kema topuvchilarida, Skandinaviya va butun dunyo bo'ylab va ularning nusxalarida aks etadi.

Yog'och kemalar

Birinchi qayiqlar, ehtimol, qayiq, qayiq va qayiq edi. Evropadagi eng qadimgi qayiqlarning yoshi 8-9000 yil. Erta taxtali qayiqlar ko'pincha tikilgan yoki tikilgan. Antik davr kemalari yig'ilgan o'lik va ohang moda O'rta asrlardan boshlab, taxtalar yog'och qoziqlar yoki temir perchinlar bilan mahkamlangan.

Birinchi yelkanli kemalar, ehtimol, miloddan avvalgi 3500 yillarda Misr yoki Mesopotamiyada paydo bo'lgan. Haqiqatan ham, Imperatorlik Rimda 1000 tonnagacha yuk ko'taradigan katta kemalar qurilgan. Antik davrning mashhur yirik kemasi, uzunligi 70 m bo'lgan, uch ustunli qirollik kemasi Iskandariya Sirakosiyasi edi.

Xitoyda miloddan avvalgi 1000 yillarga yaqin yirik kemalar ishlab chiqarilgan bo'lib, ular taxminan 1000 tonnagacha yuk ko'targan.

O'rta er dengizida kvadrat yelkan VI asrda yo'qolib, XIV asrda yana paydo bo'lgan. Bu vaqt ichida uchburchakli kechiktiruvchi ustun ustun edi.

O'rta asrlarga qadar barcha skandinaviya kemalari klinker yordamida qurilgan birinchi qobiq usul. Jurnallar radial ravishda bo'linib, taxtalarni bolta bilan shakllantirish kerak edi. Faqat keyinroq taxtalarni arralashdi. O'zgarishlar qisman tishli va 15-asrdan boshlab qurol-yarog'larni qo'llab-quvvatlash uchun harbiy kemalar uchun zarur bo'lgan o'yilgan korpus tomonidan amalga oshirildi. Karvoldan yasalgan kemalar odatda skelet-birinchi usul.

Yog'och mo'l bo'lgan Skandinaviya mamlakatlarida yog'ochdan yasalgan tijorat qurilishi yaqin vaqtgacha mavjud bo'lgan. 60 -yillarga qadar Shvetsiyada, 80 -yillarga qadar Daniya va Finlyandiyada baliq ovlagichlari yog'ochdan yasalgan. Ehtimol, Norvegiyada zamonaviy laminatlangan yog'och/elim texnologiyasidan foydalangan holda yog'ochdan baliq ovlaydigan trollar quradigan kemasozlik zavodlari bor.

Kichik kemalarning yog'och qurilishi 1980 -yillarning oxirida Shotlandiyada qo'llanilgan. Ehtimol, 1980 -yillarning oxirida (va ehtimol hali ham) Ispaniya, Gretsiya, Meyn va Yangi Skotiyada. Portugaliyada baliq ovlash qayiqlari hali 1990 -yillarda Vilamoura (Algarve) va Penicheda yog'ochdan yasalgan. Yog'ochdan yasalgan kemasozlik dunyoning boshqa qismlarida ham keng tarqalgan, masalan. Misr va Hindiston.

Qayiqlar va pervanellar

1807 yilda amerikalik Robert Fulton birinchi bug 'kemasini yaratdi. Uning yog'och korpusi bor va ishlatilgan eshkaklar. Taxminan 1830 yilda kemalar pervanellar asta -sekin bir nechta ixtirochilar, jumladan, Jozef Ressel, Jon Patch va Frensis Pettit Smit tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan. Keyingi 150 yil ichida bug 'yoki yonish dvigatelli kemalar yelkan bilan raqobatlashadi. So'nggi katta yelkanli kemalar 1950 -yillarda Janubiy Amerikada xizmat qilgan.

Temir va po'lat

19 -asr mobaynida temir va po'lat asta -sekin yog'och korpus ishlab chiqarishni o'z zimmasiga oldi. Chelik temirdan kuchliroq bo'lgani uchun afzal ko'rilgan va 1870 -yillardan boshlab kuchsizroq temir po'lat plitalar o'rniga po'lat ishlatilgan. Birinchi temir va po'latdan yasalgan korpuslar perchin qilingan, lekin 1940 -yillardan boshlab po'lat kemalar odatda payvandlanadi.

Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun kemasozlik adabiyotiga murojaat qiling. Katta rasm 1066 yilgi Bayeux gobelenidan olingan bo'lib, unda kema qurilishi tafsilotlari ko'rsatilgan. Rangli rasmlar-Xans Babbel, chizma-Aksel Nelson, 1997-99 yil yozilgan, 12-iyul.


XV asr kemalari va yuk tashish

XV asr boshlarida uchta ustuni va besh-oltita yelkanli, to'liq jihozlangan kema paydo bo'ldi. O'sha asrning boshlarida Evropa va Osiyo quruqlikdagi karvon yo'llari bilan bog'langan edi. Qal'alar yoki savdo kemalari uzun, past qirrali bo'lib, odatda ko'p sayohatlari uchun qayiqda yurar edilar va kompas va matematik navigatsiyaga ehtiyoj sezilmaydigan ketma-ket tushadigan joylarni boshqarardilar. Asr oxiriga kelib Da Gama, Kolumb va Kabot inqilobiy safarlarini amalga oshirdilar, portugallar okean navigatsiyasining birinchi maktabini tashkil etishdi va savdo global bo'la boshladi.

"To'liq" kemalar paydo bo'ldi, chunki savdo ko'lami kattalashib, tez-tez uchrab turardi va boradigan joyidan ancha uzoqlashardi. Yelkan maydonini ko'paytirish orqali kemalarning harakatlanish kuchini oshirishning iloji yo'q edi. Ko'proq kvadrat tuvalni korpusga yig'ish uchun bir nechta ustunlar va har bir ustunga kattaroq yelkanlarni ko'tarish kerak edi (rasmda ko'rsatilganidek). Bir nechta ustunlar qo'shilganligi sababli, korpus kema nurining (kengligi) uzunligidan ikki yarim baravar uzunroq bo'lgan. XV asr boshlarida yirik kemalar 1425 yilga kelib taxminan 300 tonnani tashkil etdi, ular taxminan 720 tonnani tashkil etdi.

16-asrda to'liq jihozlangan kema dastlab karvon edi, O'rta er dengizi uch ustasi, ehtimol Genuyadan Angliyaga olib kelingan. O'rta er dengizi va Angliya o'rtasidagi savdo -sotiq asosan Sautgemptonda olib borilgan. Yillar o'tishi bilan galleon eng o'ziga xos idishga aylandi. Bu ko'pincha suvdan baland ko'tarilgan ispan kemasi edi. Garchi bu nom katta galereyani nazarda tutgan bo'lsa-da, gallonlar, ehtimol, hech qachon eshkak ko'tarmagan va to'rt tirgakli bo'lishi mumkin edi.

Oldingi asrlarda kemalar ko'pincha savdogarlar bo'lib, qaroqchilardan, xususiy tadbirkorlardan va faol dushmanning mahrum bo'lishidan himoyalanish uchun qurollangan edi. Tinchlik davrida kema o'z savdosi bilan shug'ullanadi, lekin agar kerak bo'lsa, u jangovar kemaga aylana oladi. Qurol -yarog 'va uning sonlari hujum qilish qobiliyatiga aylanganda, savdogar talab qiladigan tovarlar hajmini tashish uchun joy kam qoldi. Natijada karvon paydo bo'ldi, uning ostida savdogarlar maxsus dengiz kemalari tomonidan himoya qilinadi. Agar urush nazariyasi va taktikasi o'zgarmasa, harbiy kema va savdo kemasi o'rtasidagi farq mavhum bo'lib qolishi mumkin edi. O'rta asrlardagi urushlarning aksariyati sulolaviy yoki diniy edi, qo'shinlar va dengiz flotlari zamonaviy standartlarga ko'ra kichik edi. Ammo 17 -asrda Gollandiya va Inglizlar o'rtasidagi urushdan boshlab, mojaro suverenitet va imondan ko'ra savdo -sotiqdagi raqobatning natijasi bo'ldi. Shunday qilib, yirik savdo mamlakatlari kema dizayni va qurilishida hukmronlik qila boshladilar.


Tarkibi

Kemalar, odatda, qayiqlardan kattaroqdir, lekin bu ikkalasi o'rtasida umumiy qabul qilingan farq yo'q. Kemalar, odatda, qayiqlarga qaraganda dengizda uzoqroq turishi mumkin. [3] Hindiston sud amaliyotidan kemaning qonuniy ta'rifi - bu dengiz orqali yuk tashuvchi kemadir. [4] Oddiy tushuncha shundaki, kema qayiqni ko'tarishi mumkin, lekin emas aksincha. [5] AQSh Harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining asosiy qoidasi shundaki, kemalar pog'onaga qarab tepishadi tashqarida keskin burilish, qayiqlar esa tovonlari tomonga qarab ichida [6] massa markazining suzish markaziga nisbatan joylashuvi tufayli. [7] [8] 19 -asr Amerika va Britaniya dengiz huquqi "kemalar" ni boshqa kemalar va qayiqlardan ajratib turardi, shu bilan birga ochiq qayiqlar va sallar kemalar hisoblanmaydi. [9]

Yelkanlik davrida, to'la-to'kis kema, kamida uchta to'rtburchaklar ustunga ega bo'lgan suzuvchi kema edi va boshqa turdagi kemalar, shuningdek, ularning yelkanli rejasi bilan aniqlangan edi. barka, brigantin va boshqalar [10]

Bir qator yirik kemalarga odatda qayiq deyiladi. Suv osti kemalari bunga yaqqol misol bo'la oladi. [11] An'anaga ko'ra, qayiq deb nomlanadigan katta kemalarning boshqa turlari - Buyuk ko'llar yuk tashuvchilar, daryo va feribotlar. [9] O'z kemalari va og'ir yuklarini tashish uchun etarlicha katta bo'lishiga qaramay, bu kemalar ichki yoki himoyalangan qirg'oq suvlarida ishlash uchun mo'ljallangan.

Dengizchilik an'analarining aksariyatida kemalar alohida nomlarga ega va zamonaviy kemalar ko'pincha birinchi kemasi nomi bilan ataladigan kema sinfiga tegishli bo'lishi mumkin.

Olmoshlarni tahrirlash

Evropa va Amerikaning shimoliy qismlarida kema an'anaviy ravishda ayol grammatik jinsi bilan ataladi, ingliz tilida "u" olmoshi bilan ifodalanadi, hatto erkak nomi bilan atalsa ham. Bu universal qo'llanma emas va ba'zi ingliz tilidagi jurnalistik uslubchilar "bu" dan foydalanishni maslahat berishadi, chunki ayol olmoshlari bo'lgan kemalarga nisbatan tajovuzkor va eskirgan deb qaraladi. [ iqtibos kerak ] [12] [13] Ko'p hujjatlarda kema nomi kema sinfining qisqartmasi bo'lgan kema prefiksi bilan kiritiladi, masalan, "MS" (motorli kema) yoki "SV" (yelkanli kema), bu farqni osonlashtiradi. matndagi boshqa individual nomlardan kema nomi.

Tarixdan oldingi va qadimiylik tahriri

Osiyodagi o'zgarishlar tahrir

Dengizga chiqadigan birinchi suzib yuruvchi kemalar avstraliyalik xalqlar tomonidan hozirgi Tayvan hududidan ishlab chiqilgan. Ularning katamaranlar, tayanchlar va qisqichbaqasimon yelkanlarni ixtiro qilishlari kemalarini ochiq okeanda katta masofalarga suzib o'tishga imkon berdi. Miloddan avvalgi 3000-1500 yillarda Avstraliyaning kengayishiga olib keldi. Tayvandan ular Janubi -Sharqiy Osiyoning dengiz orollarini tezda mustamlakaga aylantirdilar, so'ngra Mikroneziya, Melaneziya oroli, Polineziya va Madagaskarga suzib, oxir -oqibat dunyoning yarmini egallagan hududni mustamlakaga aylantirdilar. [14] [15] [16]

Avstraliyalik burg'ulash qurilmalari yelkanlarning yuqori va pastki qirralarini qo'llab -quvvatlaydigan shpallari bilan ajralib turar edi (va ba'zida ular o'rtasida), faqat g'arbiy burg'ulash ustunlaridan farqli o'laroq. [14] [15] [16] Yelkanlar ham to'qilgan barglardan, odatda pandan o'simliklaridan qilingan. [17] [18] Bularni, odatda, katta qayiqlarda, tayanchlar ustidagi platformalarda joylashadigan eshkak eshuvchilar to'ldirdi. [15] [19] Avstraliyalik kemalar murakkab burilishli qayiqlardan tortib to bir-biriga bog'lab qo'yilgan, qayiqdan yasalgan qayiqdan yasalgan qayiqqa qadar. Ularning konstruktsiyalari o'ziga xos bo'lib, qadimgi sallardan avstroneziya kemalarining ikki qavatli, bitta va ikki qavatli konstruktsiyalariga aylandi. [16] [19]

Dastlabki avstraliyalik dengizchilar Hindiston okeanining avstraliyalik dengiz savdo tarmog'i, ziravorlar savdosi va dengiz ipak yo'li kashshofi orqali miloddan avvalgi 1500 yillarda tashkil etilgan Shri -Lanka va Janubiy Hindistonda suzib yurish texnologiyalarining rivojlanishiga ta'sir ko'rsatgan. [20] Ba'zi olimlarning fikricha, uchburchak avstraliyalik qisqichbaqasimon yelkan erta aloqa tufayli g'arbiy kemalarda kech yelkanning rivojlanishiga ta'sir qilgan bo'lishi mumkin. [16] Xitoy kemalarining arzimas dastgohlari ham asl kelib chiqishi yava bo'lgan deb hisoblanadi. [21] [22] [23]

Miloddan avvalgi 1 -asrda Nusantara arxipelagidan kelgan odamlar uzunligi 50 m dan katta bo'lgan katta kemalarni yasashgan va suvdan 4-7 m balandlikda turishgan. Ular 700-1000 kishini va 260 tonnalik yukni tashishi mumkin edi. Bu kemalar sifatida tanilgan kunlun bo yoki kunlun po (崑崙 舶, yoritilgan. "Kunlun xalqining kemasi") xitoylar tomonidan va kolandiafonta yunonlar tomonidan. U 4-7 ta ustunli va tanja yelkanlari yordamida shamolga qarshi suzishga qodir. Bu kemalar Ganaga yetib boradi. [24]

Xitoyda boshqariladigan eshkakli kemalarning miniatyura modellari urushayotgan davlatlar davriga (miloddan avvalgi 475-221 yillar) to'g'ri keladi. [25] Xon sulolasiga ko'ra, yaxshi saqlangan dengiz floti harbiylarning ajralmas qismi edi. Miloddan avvalgi 1-asrdan boshlab Xitoy kema modellarida sternpostga o'rnatilgan rulda paydo bo'la boshladi. [25] Biroq, bu dastlabki Xitoy kemalari fluvial (daryo bo'yida) bo'lgan va dengizga mos bo'lmagan. [26] [27] Xitoyliklar miloddan avvalgi 10-asrda Song sulolasi janubi-sharqiy Osiyodagi djong savdo kemalari bilan aloqa qilganidan keyin dengiz kemalari texnologiyasini sotib olishgan, bu esa junklarning rivojlanishiga olib kelgan. [21] [22] [23]

O'rta er dengizidagi o'zgarishlar tahrir

Miloddan avvalgi 3000 yilda qadimgi misrliklar korpusga yog'och taxtalarni yig'ishni o'rgandilar. [28] Ular taxtalarni bir -biriga bog'lab qo'yish uchun to'quv tasmalaridan foydalanishgan, [28] va taxtalar orasiga to'ldirilgan qamish yoki o'tlar tikuvlarni muhrlashga yordam bergan. [28] [1-eslatma] Yunon tarixchisi va geografi Agatarxidlar misrliklarning birinchi kunlari kemada yurishlarini hujjatlashtirgan: "Qadimgi podshohlik gullab-yashnagan davrda, miloddan avvalgi 30-25 asrlar oralig'ida, daryo yo'llari tartibda saqlangan va Misr kemalari Qizil dengizda mirra-mamlakatgacha borgan." [29] Sneferuning qadimiy sadr yog'ochli kemasi - "Ikki yurtni maqtash" - bu nom bilan atalgan kemaga yozilgan birinchi ma'lumotnoma (miloddan avvalgi 2613). [30]

Qadimgi misrliklar yelkanli qayiq qurishda juda qulay edi. Ularning kema qurish mahoratining ajoyib namunasi, miloddan avvalgi 2500 -yillarda Buyuk Giza Piramidasi etagida o'rnatilgan va 1954 yilda buzilmagan holda topilgan, uzunligi 143 fut (44 m) bo'lgan "Xufu" kemasi edi.

Kashf etilgan eng qadimgi dengiz qirg'oqli qayig'i - miloddan avvalgi 1300 yillarga to'g'ri keladigan Turkiya sohillarida kech bronza davridagi Uluburun kemasi halokati. [31]

Miloddan avvalgi 1200 yilga kelib, finikiyaliklar yirik savdo kemalarini qurdilar. Richard Vudmanning ta'kidlashicha, jahon dengiz tarixida ular "uchuvchi, kabotaj va navigatsiya san'atini asos solgan birinchi haqiqiy dengizchilar" va "o'lik yuklarni tashishga qodir taxtalardan yasalgan birinchi haqiqiy kemaning" arxitektorlari deb tan olingan. va suzib, boshqarilayotgandir ". [32]

14-18 -asrlarda tahrir qiling

Osiyodagi o'zgarishlar tahrir

Bu vaqtda kemalar Evropada bo'lgani kabi Osiyoda ham rivojlanayotgan edi. [ kimga ko'ra? ] Yaponiya 1281 yilda Yaponiyaga mo'g'ullar hujumida mudofaa floti texnikasini qo'llagan. Ehtimol o'sha davrdagi mo'g'ullar ham Evropa, ham Osiyo kemasozlik texnikasidan foydalangan. [ kimga ko'ra? ] XV asr davomida Xitoyning Min sulolasi Chjen Xening diplomatik va kuchli proektsiyali sayohatlari uchun dunyodagi eng katta va eng kuchli dengiz flotlaridan birini yig'di. 15-asrda Yaponiyaning boshqa joylarida, dunyodagi birinchi temirdan yasalganlardan biri "temir kemalar" ma'nosini anglatuvchi "Tekkōsen" (鉄 甲 船) ham ishlab chiqilgan. Yaponiyada, XV -XVII asrgacha bo'lgan Sengoku davrida, feodal ustunligi uchun katta kurash, qisman, bir necha yuzta qayiqli qirg'oq flotlari, shu jumladan, atakebune bilan olib borildi. Koreyada, XV asr boshlarida Joseon davrida "Geobukseon" (거북선) ishlab chiqilgan. "Toshbaqa kemasi", deyilganidek, dunyodagi birinchi zirhli kema sifatida tan olingan.

Evropadagi o'zgarishlar tahrir

Uyg'onish davrigacha navigatsiya texnologiyasi avstroneziya madaniyatiga nisbatan ancha sodda bo'lib qoldi. [ iqtibos kerak ] Texnologiyaning yo'qligi ba'zi tsivilizatsiyalarning dengiz kuchlariga aylanishiga to'sqinlik qilmadi. Dengiz respublikalari Genuya va Venetsiya, Gansa ligasi va Vizantiya dengiz floti misol bo'la oladi. Vikinglar Shimoliy Amerikani kashf qilish, Boltiq dengizida savdo qilish va G'arbiy Evropaning ko'plab qirg'oqbo'yi hududlarini talon -taroj qilish uchun tiz cho'kdilar.

14 -asrning oxiriga kelib, karakka o'xshash kemalar kamon va orqa tarafdagi minoralarni rivojlantira boshladi. Bu minoralar kemaning barqarorligini pasaytirdi va XV asrda portugallar tomonidan arabcha asosda qurilgan karavel. qarib shamolga yaqinroq suzib keta oladigan, undan kengroq foydalanila boshladi. Minoralar asta -sekin karnadagidek prognoz va sterncastle bilan almashtirildi Santa Mariya Kristofer Kolumb haqida. Bu kengaygan bort yana bir yangilikka imkon berdi: bo'shatish porti va u bilan bog'liq artilleriya.

Carrack va keyin karavel Portugaliyada ishlab chiqilgan. Kolumbdan keyin Evropada qidiruv ishlari tezlashdi va ko'plab yangi savdo yo'llari o'rnatildi. [34] 1498 yilda Hindistonga etib, Vasko da Gama Atlantika okeanidan Hind okeaniga chiqish mumkinligini isbotladi. These explorations in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans were soon followed by France, England and the Netherlands, who explored the Portuguese and Spanish trade routes into the Pacific Ocean, reaching Australia in 1606 and New Zealand in 1642. [35]

Specialization and modernization Edit

Parallel to the development of warships, ships in service of marine fishery and trade also developed in the period between antiquity and the Renaissance.

Maritime trade was driven by the development of shipping companies with significant financial resources. Canal barges, towed by draft animals on an adjacent towpath, contended with the railway up to and past the early days of the industrial revolution. Flat-bottomed and flexible scow boats also became widely used for transporting small cargoes. Mercantile trade went hand-in-hand with exploration, self-financed by the commercial benefits of exploration.

During the first half of the 18th century, the French Navy began to develop a new type of vessel known as a ship of the line, featuring seventy-four guns. This type of ship became the backbone of all European fighting fleets. These ships were 56 metres (184 ft) long and their construction required 2,800 oak trees and 40 kilometres (25 mi) of rope they carried a crew of about 800 sailors and soldiers.

During the 19th century the Royal Navy enforced a ban on the slave trade, acted to suppress piracy, and continued to map the world. A clipper was a very fast sailing ship of the 19th century. The clipper routes fell into commercial disuse with the introduction of steam ships with better fuel efficiency, and the opening of the Suez and Panama Canals.

Ship designs stayed fairly unchanged until the late 19th century. The industrial revolution, new mechanical methods of propulsion, and the ability to construct ships from metal triggered an explosion in ship design. Factors including the quest for more efficient ships, the end of long running and wasteful maritime conflicts, and the increased financial capacity of industrial powers created an avalanche of more specialized boats and ships. Ships built for entirely new functions, such as firefighting, rescue, and research, also began to appear.

21 -asr tahriri

In 2019, the world's fleet included 51,684 commercial vessels with gross tonnage of more than 1,000 tons, totaling 1.96 billion tons. [37] Such ships carried 11 billion tons of cargo in 2018, a sum that grew by 2.7% over the previous year. [38] In terms of tonnage, 29% of ships were tankers, 43% are bulk carriers, 13% container ships and 15% were other types. [39]

In 2002, there were 1,240 warships operating in the world, not counting small vessels such as patrol boats. The United States accounted for 3 million tons worth of these vessels, Russia 1.35 million tons, the United Kingdom 504,660 tons and China 402,830 tons. The 20th century saw many naval engagements during the two world wars, the Cold War, and the rise to power of naval forces of the two blocs. The world's major powers have recently used their naval power in cases such as the United Kingdom in the Falkland Islands and the United States in Iraq.

The size of the world's fishing fleet is more difficult to estimate. The largest of these are counted as commercial vessels, but the smallest are legion. Fishing vessels can be found in most seaside villages in the world. As of 2004, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated 4 million fishing vessels were operating worldwide. [40] The same study estimated that the world's 29 million fishermen [41] caught 85,800,000 tonnes (84,400,000 long tons 94,600,000 short tons) of fish and shellfish that year. [42]

Because ships are constructed using the principles of naval architecture that require same structural components, their classification is based on their function such as that suggested by Paulet and Presles, [43] which requires modification of the components. The categories accepted in general by naval architects are: [44]

    – Multihulls including wave piercers, small-waterplane-area twin hull (SWATH), surface effect ships and hovercraft, hydrofoil, wing in ground effect craft (WIG). vessels – Platform supply vessel, pipe layers, accommodation and cranebarges, non and semi-submersible drilling rigs, production platforms, floating production storage and offloading units.
    work craft
  • Dry cargo ships – tramp freighters, bulk carriers, cargo liners, container vessels, barge carriers, Ro-Ro ships, refrigerated cargo ships, timber carriers, livestock & light vehicle carriers.
  • Liquid cargo ships – Oil tankers, liquefied gas carriers, chemical carriers.
  • Passenger vessels
  • Recreational boats and craft – rowed, masted and motorised craft
  • Special-purpose vessels – weather and research vessels, deep sea survey vessels, and icebreakers.
  • Submersibles – industrial exploration, scientific research, tourist and hydrographic survey. and other surface combatants – aircraft carriers, destroyers, frigates, corvettes, minesweepers, etc.

Some of these are discussed in the following sections.

Inland vessels Edit

Freshwater shipping may occur on lakes, rivers and canals. Ships designed for those venues may be specially adapted to the widths and depths of specific waterways. Examples of freshwater waterways that are navigable in part by large vessels include the Danube, Mississippi, Rhine, Yangtze and Amazon Rivers, and the Great Lakes.

Great Lakes Edit

Lake freighters, also called lakers, are cargo vessels that ply the Great Lakes. The most well-known is SS Edmund Fitzgerald, the latest major vessel to be wrecked on the Lakes. These vessels are traditionally called boats, not ships. Visiting ocean-going vessels are called "salties". Because of their additional beam, very large salties are never seen inland of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Because the smallest of the Soo Locks is larger than any Seaway lock, salties that can pass through the Seaway may travel anywhere in the Great Lakes. Because of their deeper draft, salties may accept partial loads on the Great Lakes, "topping off" when they have exited the Seaway. Similarly, the largest lakers are confined to the Upper Lakes (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie) because they are too large to use the Seaway locks, beginning at the Welland Canal that bypasses the Niagara River.

Since the freshwater lakes are less corrosive to ships than the salt water of the oceans, lakers tend to last much longer than ocean freighters. Lakers older than 50 years are not unusual, and as of 2005, all were over 20 years of age. [45]

SS St. Marys Challenger, built in 1906 as William P Snyder, was the oldest laker still working on the Lakes until its conversion into a barge starting in 2013. Similarly, E.M. Ford, built in 1898 as Presque Isle, was sailing the lakes 98 years later in 1996. As of 2007 E.M. Ford was still afloat as a stationary transfer vessel at a riverside cement silo in Saginaw, Michigan.

Merchant ship Edit

Merchant ships are ships used for commercial purposes and can be divided into four broad categories: fishing, cargo ships, passenger ships, and special-purpose ships. [46] The UNCTAD review of maritime transport categorizes ships as: oil tankers, bulk (and combination) carriers, general cargo ships, container ships, and "other ships", which includes "liquefied petroleum gas carriers, liquefied natural gas carriers, parcel (chemical) tankers, specialized tankers, reefers, offshore supply, tugs, dredgers, cruise, ferries, other non-cargo". General cargo ships include "multi-purpose and project vessels and roll-on/roll-off cargo". [2]

Modern commercial vessels are typically powered by a single propeller driven by a diesel or, less usually, gas turbine engine., [47] but until the mid-19th century they were predominantly square sail rigged. The fastest vessels may use pump-jet engines. [ iqtibos kerak ] Most commercial vessels have full hull-forms to maximize cargo capacity. [ iqtibos kerak ] Hulls are usually made of steel, although aluminum can be used on faster craft, and fiberglass on the smallest service vessels. [ iqtibos kerak ] Commercial vessels generally have a crew headed by a sea captain, with deck officers and engine officers on larger vessels. Special-purpose vessels often have specialized crew if necessary, for example scientists aboard research vessels.

Fishing boats are generally small, often little more than 30 meters (98 ft) but up to 100 metres (330 ft) for a large tuna or whaling ship. Aboard a fish processing vessel, the catch can be made ready for market and sold more quickly once the ship makes port. Special purpose vessels have special gear. For example, trawlers have winches and arms, stern-trawlers have a rear ramp, and tuna seiners have skiffs. In 2004, 85,800,000 tonnes (84,400,000 long tons 94,600,000 short tons) of fish were caught in the marine capture fishery. [48] Anchoveta represented the largest single catch at 10,700,000 tonnes (10,500,000 long tons 11,800,000 short tons). [48] That year, the top ten marine capture species also included Alaska pollock, Blue whiting, Skipjack tuna, Atlantic herring, Chub mackerel, Japanese anchovy, Chilean jack mackerel, Largehead hairtail, and Yellowfin tuna. [48] Other species including salmon, shrimp, lobster, clams, squid and crab, are also commercially fished. Modern commercial fishermen use many methods. One is fishing by nets, such as purse seine, beach seine, lift nets, gillnets, or entangling nets. Another is trawling, including bottom trawl. Hooks and lines are used in methods like long-line fishing and hand-line fishing. Another method is the use of fishing trap.

Cargo ships transport dry and liquid cargo. Dry cargo can be transported in bulk by bulk carriers, packed directly onto a general cargo ship in break-bulk, packed in intermodal containers as aboard a container ship, or driven aboard as in roll-on roll-off ships. Liquid cargo is generally carried in bulk aboard tankers, such as oil tankers which may include both crude and finished products of oil, chemical tankers which may also carry vegetable oils other than chemicals and gas carriers, although smaller shipments may be carried on container ships in tank containers. [49]

Passenger ships range in size from small river ferries to very large cruise ships. This type of vessel includes ferries, which move passengers and vehicles on short trips ocean liners, which carry passengers from one place to another and cruise ships, which carry passengers on voyages undertaken for pleasure, visiting several places and with leisure activities on board, often returning them to the port of embarkation. Riverboats and inland ferries are specially designed to carry passengers, cargo, or both in the challenging river environment. Rivers present special hazards to vessels. They usually have varying water flows that alternately lead to high speed water flows or protruding rock hazards. Changing siltation patterns may cause the sudden appearance of shoal waters, and often floating or sunken logs and trees (called snags) can endanger the hulls and propulsion of riverboats. Riverboats are generally of shallow draft, being broad of beam and rather square in plan, with a low freeboard and high topsides. Riverboats can survive with this type of configuration as they do not have to withstand the high winds or large waves that are seen on large lakes, seas, or oceans.

Fishing vessels are a subset of commercial vessels, but generally small in size and often subject to different regulations and classification. They can be categorized by several criteria: architecture, the type of fish they catch, the fishing method used, geographical origin, and technical features such as rigging. As of 2004, the world's fishing fleet consisted of some 4 million vessels. [40] Of these, 1.3 million were decked vessels with enclosed areas and the rest were open vessels. [40] Most decked vessels were mechanized, but two-thirds of the open vessels were traditional craft propelled by sails and oars. [40] More than 60% of all existing large fishing vessels [note 2] were built in Japan, Peru, the Russian Federation, Spain or the United States of America. [50]

Special purpose vessels Edit

A weather ship was a ship stationed in the ocean as a platform for surface and upper air meteorological observations for use in marine weather forecasting. Surface weather observations were taken hourly, and four radiosonde releases occurred daily. [51] It was also meant to aid in search and rescue operations and to support transatlantic flights. [51] [52] Proposed as early as 1927 by the aviation community, [53] the establishment of weather ships proved to be so useful during World War II that the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) established a global network of weather ships in 1948, with 13 to be supplied by the United States. [52] This number was eventually negotiated down to nine. [54]

The weather ship crews were normally at sea for three weeks at a time, returning to port for 10-day stretches. [51] Weather ship observations proved to be helpful in wind and wave studies, as they did not avoid weather systems like other ships tended to for safety reasons. [55] They were also helpful in monitoring storms at sea, such as tropical cyclones. [56] The removal of a weather ship became a negative factor in forecasts leading up to the Great Storm of 1987. [57] Beginning in the 1970s, their role became largely superseded by weather buoys due to the ships' significant cost. [58] The agreement of the use of weather ships by the international community ended in 1990. The last weather ship was Polarfront, known as weather station M ("Mike"), which was put out of operation on 1 January 2010. Weather observations from ships continue from a fleet of voluntary merchant vessels in routine commercial operation.

Naval vessels Edit

Naval vessels are those used by a navy for military purposes. There have been many types of naval vessel. Modern naval vessels can be broken down into three categories: surface warships, submarines, and auxiliary ships.

Modern warships are generally divided into seven main categories: aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, frigates, corvettes, submarines and amphibious assault ships. The distinction between cruisers, destroyers, frigates, and corvettes is not rigorous the same vessel may be described differently in different navies. Battleships were used during the Second World War and occasionally since then (the last battleships were removed from the U.S. Naval Vessel Register in March 2006), but were made obsolete by the use of carrier-borne aircraft and guided missiles. [59]

Most military submarines are either attack submarines or ballistic missile submarines. Until the end of World War II the primary role of the diesel/electric submarine was anti-ship warfare, inserting and removing covert agents and military forces, and intelligence-gathering. With the development of the homing torpedo, better sonar systems, and nuclear propulsion, submarines also became able to effectively hunt each other. The development of submarine-launched nuclear and cruise missiles gave submarines a substantial and long-ranged ability to attack both land and sea targets with a variety of weapons ranging from cluster munitions to nuclear weapons.

Most navies also include many types of support and auxiliary vessel, such as minesweepers, patrol boats, offshore patrol vessels, replenishment ships, and hospital ships which are designated medical treatment facilities. [60]

Fast combat vessels such as cruisers and destroyers usually have fine hulls to maximize speed and maneuverability. [61] They also usually have advanced marine electronics and communication systems, as well as weapons.

Some components exist in vessels of any size and purpose. Every vessel has a hull of sorts. Every vessel has some sort of propulsion, whether it's a pole, an ox, or a nuclear reactor. Most vessels have some sort of steering system. Other characteristics are common, but not as universal, such as compartments, holds, a superstructure, and equipment such as anchors and winches.

Hull Edit

For a ship to float, its weight must be less than that of the water displaced by the ship's hull. [62] There are many types of hulls, from logs lashed together to form a raft to the advanced hulls of America's Cup sailboats. A vessel may have a single hull (called a monohull design), two in the case of catamarans, or three in the case of trimarans. Vessels with more than three hulls are rare, but some experiments have been conducted with designs such as pentamarans. Multiple hulls are generally parallel to each other and connected by rigid arms.

Hulls have several elements. The bow is the foremost part of the hull. Many ships feature a bulbous bow. The keel is at the very bottom of the hull, extending the entire length of the ship. The rear part of the hull is known as the stern, and many hulls have a flat back known as a transom. Common hull appendages include propellers for propulsion, rudders for steering, and stabilizers to quell a ship's rolling motion. Other hull features can be related to the vessel's work, such as fishing gear and sonar domes.

Hulls are subject to various hydrostatic and hydrodynamic constraints. The key hydrostatic constraint is that it must be able to support the entire weight of the boat, and maintain stability even with often unevenly distributed weight. Hydrodynamic constraints include the ability to withstand shock waves, weather collisions and groundings.

Older ships and pleasure craft often have or had wooden hulls. Steel is used for most commercial vessels. Aluminium is frequently used for fast vessels, and composite materials are often found in sailboats and pleasure craft. Some ships have been made with concrete hulls.

Propulsion systems Edit

Propulsion systems for ships fall into three categories: human propulsion, sailing, and mechanical propulsion. Human propulsion includes rowing, which was used even on large galleys. Propulsion by sail generally consists of a sail hoisted on an erect mast, supported by stays and spars and controlled by ropes. Sail systems were the dominant form of propulsion until the 19th century. They are now generally used for recreation and competition, although experimental sail systems, such as the turbosails, rotorsails, and wingsails have been used on larger modern vessels for fuel savings.

Mechanical propulsion systems generally consist of a motor or engine turning a propeller, or less frequently, an impeller or wave propulsion fins. Steam engines were first used for this purpose, but have mostly been replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines, outboard motors, and gas turbine engines on faster ships. Nuclear reactors producing steam are used to propel warships and icebreakers, and there have been attempts to utilize them to power commercial vessels (see NS Savanna).

In addition to traditional fixed and controllable pitch propellers there are many specialized variations, such as contra-rotating and nozzle-style propellers. Most vessels have a single propeller, but some large vessels may have up to four propellers supplemented with transverse thrusters for maneuvring at ports. The propeller is connected to the main engine via a propeller shaft and, in case of medium- and high-speed engines, a reduction gearbox. Some modern vessels have a diesel-electric powertrain in which the propeller is turned by an electric motor powered by the ship's generators.

Steering systems Edit

For ships with independent propulsion systems for each side, such as manual oars or some paddles, [note 3] steering systems may not be necessary. In most designs, such as boats propelled by engines or sails, a steering system becomes necessary. The most common is a rudder, a submerged plane located at the rear of the hull. Rudders are rotated to generate a lateral force which turns the boat. Rudders can be rotated by a tiller, manual wheels, or electro-hydraulic systems. Autopilot systems combine mechanical rudders with navigation systems. Ducted propellers are sometimes used for steering.

Some propulsion systems are inherently steering systems. Examples include the outboard motor, the bow thruster, and the Z-drive.

Holds, compartments, and the superstructure Edit

Larger boats and ships generally have multiple decks and compartments. Separate berthings and heads are found on sailboats over about 25 feet (7.6 m). Fishing boats and cargo ships typically have one or more cargo holds. Most larger vessels have an engine room, a galley, and various compartments for work. Tanks are used to store fuel, engine oil, and fresh water. Ballast tanks are equipped to change a ship's trim and modify its stability.

Superstructures are found above the main deck. On sailboats, these are usually very low. On modern cargo ships, they are almost always located near the ship's stern. On passenger ships and warships, the superstructure generally extends far forward.

Uskunani tahrirlash

Shipboard equipment varies from ship to ship depending on such factors as the ship's era, design, area of operation, and purpose. Some types of equipment that are widely found include: [ iqtibos kerak ]

    can be the home of antennas, navigation lights, radar transponders, fog signals, and similar devices often required by law.
  • Ground tackle comprises the anchor, its chain or cable, and connecting fittings. [63]
  • Cargo equipment such as cranes and cargo booms may be used to load and unload cargo and ship's stores.
  • Safety equipment such as lifeboats, liferafts, and survival suits are carried aboard many vessels for emergency use.

Hydrostatics Edit

Ships float in the water at a level where mass of the displaced water equals the mass of the vessel, such that the downwards force of gravity equals the upward force of buoyancy. As a vessel is lowered into the water its weight remains constant but the corresponding weight of water displaced by its hull increases. If the vessel's mass is evenly distributed throughout, it floats evenly along its length and across its beam (width). A vessel's stability is considered in both this hydrostatic sense as well as a hydrodynamic sense, when subjected to movement, rolling and pitching, and the action of waves and wind. Stability problems can lead to excessive pitching and rolling, and eventually capsizing and sinking. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Hydrodynamics Edit

The advance of a vessel through water is resisted by the water. This resistance can be broken down into several components, the main ones being the friction of the water on the hull and wave making resistance. To reduce resistance and therefore increase the speed for a given power, it is necessary to reduce the wetted surface and use submerged hull shapes that produce low amplitude waves. To do so, high-speed vessels are often more slender, with fewer or smaller appendages. The friction of the water is also reduced by regular maintenance of the hull to remove the sea creatures and algae that accumulate there. Antifouling paint is commonly used to assist in this. Advanced designs such as the bulbous bow assist in decreasing wave resistance.

A simple way of considering wave-making resistance is to look at the hull in relation to its wake. At speeds lower than the wave propagation speed, the wave rapidly dissipates to the sides. As the hull approaches the wave propagation speed, however, the wake at the bow begins to build up faster than it can dissipate, and so it grows in amplitude. Since the water is not able to "get out of the way of the hull fast enough", the hull, in essence, has to climb over or push through the bow wave. This results in an exponential increase in resistance with increasing speed.

This hull speed is found by the formula:

qayerda L is the length of the waterline in feet or meters.

When the vessel exceeds a speed/length ratio of 0.94, it starts to outrun most of its bow wave, and the hull actually settles slightly in the water as it is now only supported by two wave peaks. As the vessel exceeds a speed/length ratio of 1.34, the hull speed, the wavelength is now longer than the hull, and the stern is no longer supported by the wake, causing the stern to squat, and the bow rise. The hull is now starting to climb its own bow wave, and resistance begins to increase at a very high rate. While it is possible to drive a displacement hull faster than a speed/length ratio of 1.34, it is prohibitively expensive to do so. Most large vessels operate at speed/length ratios well below that level, at speed/length ratios of under 1.0.

For large projects with adequate funding, hydrodynamic resistance can be tested experimentally in a hull testing pool or using tools of computational fluid dynamics.

Vessels are also subject to ocean surface waves and sea swell as well as effects of wind and weather. These movements can be stressful for passengers and equipment, and must be controlled if possible. The rolling movement can be controlled, to an extent, by ballasting or by devices such as fin stabilizers. Pitching movement is more difficult to limit and can be dangerous if the bow submerges in the waves, a phenomenon called pounding. Sometimes, ships must change course or speed to stop violent rolling or pitching.


Ship Types and Rates in the Age of Sail

Pointing a cursor over a label will display the image.

The masts were set at extreme angles, as it was believed at the time to provide for better speed. Baltimore clippers were also used to transport prospectors and settlers from the East Coast to the West Coast during the California gold-rush.

In the 17th century the term Brig was also used as short for Brigantine, which then could be any variety of two-masted square-rigged vessels depending on nation and region.

2. A clinker built ship's boat used for travel between ship and shore.

The ghanjah was a large two- or three-masted vessel with a curved stem and a long sloping and often ornately carved transom, originating from India.

The baghlah was the traditional two-masted deep-sea dhow it had a transom with usually five windows and a poop deck similar to European galleons or caravels.

Other large seagoing two-masted dhows were the double-ended bom, which had a long stem pointing to the heavens, often with a bowsprit flying a jib, and the sambuk.

The smaller battil featured a long stem topped by a large, club-shaped stemhead and a sternpost decorated with cowrie shells and leather.

A three-masted galjoot of 700 tons, circa 1800.

A galley a scaloccio is rowed by groups of three, five or seven men on a bench pulling a single oar, and a galley ala sensile has a single rower per oar, possibly two or three men to a bench (a terzaruolo). The top speed of a galley under full-oar has been estimated to be 7 or 8 knots.

Maltese galley at anchor - plate (G. Tagliagambe/Antonio Suntach) from around 1780 - 1800.

1. A single-, two-, or sometimes even three-masted coastal fishing vessel similar to a smack but setting square sails on the mainmast. Shuningdek hoeker or dogger (Dutch).


More Ideas for Saving Lives

Patent No. 20,072, April 27, 1858

Transfer from U.S. Patent Office

Life buoy patent model

Francis D. Lee of Charleston, South Carolina, envisioned a shipboard water tank that&mdashif drained in time&mdashwould float free of a sinking ship. Passengers would cling to its exterior while a &ldquotreasure safe&rdquo suspended below would save &ldquobullion, mails, and other valuables.&rdquo If the buoy itself sank, a smaller cork buoy would float out of the turret at the top to &ldquomark the location of the lost treasure.&rdquo

Patent No. 146,316, January 13, 1874

Transfer from U.S. Patent Office

Life raft patent model

This raft uses rows of air-filled cylinders as floats. The elaborate wood framework protects the floats from damage and forms a deck. The inventor, George Clark of Ecorse, Michigan, hoped his rafts would be placed on the upper decks of steamships, &ldquo. whence they may readily be thrown into the water by one or two persons of ordinary strength, thus avoiding the delay and uncertainty of. launching boats.&rdquo

Patent No. 149,891, December 12, 1874

Transfer from U.S. Patent Office

Lifeboat patent model

Alpheus G. and Abram T. Sterling, fishermen from Portland, Maine, designed this boat to partially flood when launched. Water allowed into one chamber helped the boat resist capsizing while air-sealed rubber fenders and a second interior chamber kept it afloat.

Patent No. 211,807, January 28, 1879

Transfer from U.S. Patent Office

Lifeboat patent model

Designers George Tremberger and Michael Joseph Stein of New York City claimed that this boat’s &ldquocabin is free to roll in the body of the boat, and consequently the effect of the rolling motions of the boat is not felt by the passengers.&rdquo Among the boat’s many features were a telescoping mast and hand-operated propeller.


Alexander Ladd's role

Alexander Ladd, who headed one of the wealthy mercantile families typical of this period, owned the Oar House building. His home overlooking the river, the Moffatt-Ladd House, is now maintained by the Colonial Dames of America, New Hampshire Division. The mansion is open to the public in summer, and is a fine example of days gone by. We urge you to take time for a visit.

Suggested but never proven is a story that Ladd's warehouse on the water and his residence were linked by a tunnel under Market Street, which allegedly caved in many years ago and was sealed. During the initial renovation of the Oar House, a spring-fed well was revealed at the rear of our downstairs dining room. The well served the early needs of the building and opened to the street above in case of fire.

Because of Portsmouth's protected and deep harbor, the city was the scene of many shipbuilding enterprises. This activity reached a peak between 1840 and 1860 when 169 vessels were built. Of this number, 54 were barks, brigs or schooners, and 115 were three-masted sailing ships, including 28 clipper ships. The artwork hanging throughout the restaurant outlines the history of some of the more prominent ships, and the models are all of Portsmouth-built vessels.

At the Oar House, we have tried to honor the marine heritage of Portsmouth in its heyday of commerce on the sea. As a museum restaurant, we hope you enjoy our menu and our displays.



Izohlar:

  1. Azriel

    The very excellent idea

  2. Kazilabar

    yy ... not bad

  3. Holdin

    What rare good luck! What happiness!

  4. Quin

    Faqat bu kerak, men qatnashaman.



Xabar yozing