We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Panchovdan oldingi davrda Kanchipuram
The Kanchipuram tumani Shimoliy Tamil -Nadu Tamil mamlakatida arianlashgan birinchi mintaqa hisoblanadi. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengarning fikricha, Pallavadan oldingi davrda bu hudud sanskrit madaniyatining eng janubiy forposti bo'lgan. U o'z da'vosini tasdiqlovchi "Kanchipuram" so'zining etimologik kelib chiqishini va boshqa dalillarni keltiradi. Biroq, bunday da'volarga qaramay, Kanchipuram tamil eposida tilga olingan deb ishoniladi Manimekhalay.
Miloddan avvalgi IV asrda Kanchipuram noaniq o'tmishdan chiqib, Pallava imperiyasining poytaxti bo'ldi. VII asrda shahar qudratli cho'qqisida edi, unga xitoylik sayyoh Xyuen Tsang tashrif buyurgan.
Aparajita uslubi. Bu Chola arxitekturasiga o'xshash bezakli.
Dalavanurda uslubda qurilgan bir nechta ma'badlar bor. Eslatma
ba'zi ziyoratgohlarning o'ziga xos xususiyati shundaki, ular go'zallar bilan bezatilgan
Pallava shohlari va ularning malikalarining hayotga o'xshash tasvirlari. Hamma o'zlarini aytdilar
ma'bad me'morchiligi tarixida noyob.
Pallava haykaltaroshligi ko'proq buddizm an'analariga bog'liq edi. Umuman olganda
shakli monumental va chiziqli bo'lib, odatdagidan qochadi
Dekan haykalining bezaklari. Erkin turgan ibodatxonalar
Dekol va Kanchipuramdagi Aithole va Badami va
Tamil mamlakatidagi Mahabalipuram, bu uchun yaxshi sharoit yaratdi
tosh kesilgan ibodatxonalarga qaraganda haykal. Va Pallava haykali shunday edi
monumental va chiziqli shaklda Gupta haykaliga o'xshaydi.
Asosiy shakl eski an'analardan kelib chiqqan bo'lsa -da, oxiri
natija uning mahalliy dahosini aniq aks ettiradi.
Endi adabiyot uchun yaqinda Bharavi va
U Pallava sudida yashadi. Bharaviyning Kiratarjuniyam va Dandinning
Dashakumaracharita ikkita eng yaxshi asar edi. Dandindan biri
she'rlar shunday mahorat bilan yozilgandiki, uni odatda o'qiganingizda, uni beradi
Ramayana haqidagi hikoya va teskari o'qilgan, o'rganish
Mahabharata. Dandin poetikaga oid standart asar muallifi edi.
VIII asrga qadar Kambodjada Pallava ta'siri ustun bo'lgan.
Sayvizm ibodatning yuzaki shakli edi. Va Pallava turi
sixarani Java, Kambodja va Annam ibodatxonalarida topish mumkin.
Hind madaniyatining bu targ'iboti uning dinamik davrgacha bo'lganligini isbotlaydi
Milodiy 1000 yil Hindiston janubida.
Shunday qilib, Pallavalar mamlakat uchun bebaho xizmat ko'rsatdilar
ichida va tashqarisida, ular hindlarning mash'ala tashuvchilaridan biri edi
janubi-sharqiy Osiyodagi tsivilizatsiya. Bu ularning qo'shgan hissasi
Panchovdan oldingi davrda Kanchipuram
Shimoliy Tamil -Naduning Kanchipuram tumani tamil mamlakatida arianlashgan birinchi mintaqa hisoblanadi. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar, Pallavadan oldingi davrda bu hudud sanskrit madaniyatining eng janubiy forposti bo'lgan deb hisoblaydi. U o'z da'vosini tasdiqlovchi "Kanchipuram" so'zining etimologik kelib chiqishini va boshqa dalillarni keltiradi. Biroq, bunday da'volarga qaramay, Kanchipuram tamil dostoni Manimekhalayda tilga olingan deb ishoniladi.
IV asrda Kanchipuram qorong'u o'tmishdan Pallava imperiyasining poytaxtiga aylandi. VII asrda, Xitoy sayyohi Xyuen Tsangga tashrif buyurganida, shahar o'zining eng yuqori cho'qqisiga chiqqan edi.
1. Etimologiya. (Etimologiya)
Ba'zi olimlarning fikricha, Kanchipuram tamil she'rlarida aytilgan "Kanjiyur" dan kelib chiqqan bo'lishi mumkin. Chola mamlakatidagi Kanjiyur joyi va uning nomi "Kanji daraxtlari bilan o'ralgan joy" degan ma'noni anglatadi. Kanjiyur bir nechta qadimiy matnlarda zikr qilingan, ulardan biri Puṟanāṉūṟu.
Biroq, Dravid tillari guruhi va tarixi bo'yicha mutaxassisi, professor PT Srinivasa Iyengar, Tamillarning birinchi kitobidan boshlab, miloddan avvalgi 600 -yillargacha, kitobida, Tamilning ilk she'rlarida eslatib o'tilgan Kanjiyur umuman eski emas, balki boshqa shahar, deb ta'kidlaydi. butun.
Srinivasa Iyengarning aytishicha, Kanchipuram sanskritcha so'z bo'lib, shaharning tamil nomi yo'q edi. Uning da'vosini qo'llab-quvvatlab, u Kanchipuram miloddan avvalgi III-II asrlarda yashagan sanskrit grammatikasi Patanjali kitoblarida tilga olinganligini aytdi. Aksincha, tamil adabiyotidagi Kanchipuramda birinchi eslatma, II asr oxirida yozilgan Ilandiraiyan Eulogiyasi Perumpānāṟṟuppatai da. Bu erda, Kanchi sanskrit tilida Kanchi emas, balki uning Prakrit shaklidagi Kacchi tilida tilga olingan.
Bu dalillarga asoslanib, Shrinivasa Iyengar Kanchipuram sanskrit madaniyatining janubdagi eng past nuqtasi bo'lishi mumkin, degan xulosaga keladi.
2. Qadimgi Tamil mamlakatining shimoliy chegarasi. (Severnuyu granitsu Drevney tamilskoy straniyasi)
Qadimgi Tamil mamlakatining eng shimoliy provinsiyasi zamonaviy Janubiy Arcot tumani Aruva maydoni edi. Aruva tashqarisidagi hududlar Aruvavadadalay nomi bilan mashhur edi. Kanchipuram tumanida pallava davri oxirigacha aniq nom yo'q edi, u Tondaimandalam nomini oldi.
3.1. Tarix. Tarixdan oldingi Kanchipuram. (Do'storicheskie Kanchipuram)
Genri Bryus Footes 1863 yilda Pallavaramda tarixdan oldingi tosh boltani kashf etgani, bu hudud tosh asridan beri bosib olingan bo'lishi mumkinligini ko'rsatadi. Keyingi davr arxeologik topilmalari hatto temir asrining gullab -yashnayotganini ko'rsatadi. Chennayning shimoli-g'arbidagi Kanchipuramda topilgan hayvon qoldiqlari va tosh asboblari 85.000 yilga to'g'ri kelishi mumkin.
3.2. Tarix. Dravida. (Volny)
Kanchipuram haqida birinchi eslatma Patanjali sanskritcha matnlari edi. Mahabharathadagi shohlik to'lqinlari Kanchipuram maydoniga qaratilishi kerak. Bir an'anaga ko'ra, Chandraguptas vaziri chanakya, Maura to'lqinlarning vatani edi. Chanakyasning turli nomlaridan biri Dramila, sanskritcha "tamil" ning shakli edi. Kanchipuram, shuningdek, "Bhagavata Purana" da Satyavrataksetra deb ataladi, bu mintaqani boshqargan qirol Satyavrata sharafiga. Oxir -oqibat, Pallavalar davridan oldin Kanchining barcha shohlari "Satyaputra" yoki "Satyavrata o'g'li" unvoniga ega edilar.
3.3. Tarix. Agamik kultlarning paydo bo'lishi. (Pod'em kulty bespolyy)
Kanchipuram viloyati-Tamil mamlakatining birinchi mintaqalaridan biri bo'lib, aseksual kultlarning o'sishiga guvoh bo'lgan. Sanskritcha matnlar nasroniylik davridan bir asr oldin Hindistondagi etti muqaddas ma'bad shaharlari orasida Kanchipuramni eslatib o'tgan. Buddist monastirlari imperator Ashoka Mauriya davrida qurilgan. Buddist va Jeynning mintaqadagi qoldiqlari o'sha paytda shahardagi buddistlar va jainlar borligini tasdiqlaydi.
- sayyoh Xuanzang Pallava hukmronligi davrida Kanchipuramga tashrif buyurib, ularning yaxshi qoidalarini maqtagan. Pallava so'zi sanskrit tilida sudraluvchi yoki filial degan ma'noni anglatadi. Ular ... bo'lgandi
- joyiga tashrif buyurdi. 4 -IX asrlardan boshlab Pallava sulolasi hukmronligi davrida Kanchipuram o'zining e'tiborini qozondi. Shahar xizmat qildi
- Mahabalipuramdagi yagona tosh ibodatxonalari va ularning poytaxti Kanchipuram hozir Tamil Naduda joylashgan. Pallava qurilishining dastlabki namunalari
- Chalukyalar vafot etguniga qadar 750 yil. Chalukyalar va Pallavalar ko'plab janglarda qatnashgan va Pallava poytaxti Kanchipuram ishg'ol qilingan.
- Nadu va Pallava sulolasi hukmronlik qilgan davrda yashagan. U miloddan avvalgi 6 -asrdan boshlab Appar Tirunavukkarasar bilan uchrashgan tarixiy shaxs hisoblanadi
- Ehtimol, Kanchipuramning Pallavalari ostida bo'ysunuvchi mavqega ega bo'lgan, bu joylarni Ananda Gotrikasdan egallab olgach, Madxav Varma II Amarapurani yasagan.
- dastlab Pallava Puram - Hindistonning Tamil Nadu, Chengalpattu tumanidagi turar joy. Bu janubda joylashgan tanlov darajasidagi munitsipalitet
- Pallavalarga qarshi kurashi U Kanchipuram tomon yurdi, lekin Pallava yozuvlari shuni ko'rsatadiki, u Parialadagi janglarda teskarisini boshdan kechirgan.
- qurilgan yutuqlar Mahabalipuramdagi yagona tosh ibodatxonalar va ularning poytaxti Kanchipuram hozir Tamil Naduda joylashgan. Pallava san'ati va arxitekturasi tasvirlangan
- Nakacami 2002 Tamildagi Buddizm, mustamlakadan oldingi Tamilakam va Alam: Prolog. Pre -Pallava va Pallava davri Almqvist Wiksell. 287 290 -bet
- 639 640 yillar davomida Kanchipuramda bir necha oy bo'lgan xitoylik ziyoratchi Xuanzang, Pandya va Pallava ta'siridan uzoqda.
- sulolaning birinchi podshohi va Pallava davrida Kanchipuram qiroli Vishnugopa davrida hukmdor bo'lgan, Shimoliy Hind imperatori Samudraguptaga yutqazgandan keyin.
- Lord Shiva buyrug'i bilan 1500 yil oldin Mahindra Pallava tomonidan qurilgan. Ikkala ma'bad ham Pallava davrida qurilgan. Chennai va uning atrofidagi ko'plab fidoyilar
- Pallava Nandivarman II ustidan, lekin odamlarga xayrixohligi va Pallava poytaxti Kanchipuram yodgorliklari uchun. Shunday qilib, u avvalgisidan qasos oldi
- 753 yilda Kanchipuramning Pallavalariga qarshi boshliqlarining sababi Chalukyalar o'rnini Manyaxetalik Rashtrakutalar egalladi.
- Yaxshi holatda saqlanib qolgan haykalchali Pallava ibodatxonalari - Kailasanathar ibodatxonasi, Vaikunta Perumal ibodatxonasi va boshqalar Kanchipuram va g'ordagi
- pandya so'zi eski mamlakatni anglatadi, Chola yangi mamlakatni anglatadi, Chera - tepaliklar va Pallava - sanskrit tilidan. Etimologiya
- yoki Kanchipuram o'zining "Avantisundari Katha" asarida, VII -VIII asr sanskrit olimi Dandin, Tamil Naduda yashagan va Pallava saroyi bilan bog'langan.
- eslatma Pallava sulolasining dastlabki avlodi edi. U Kanchipuram Nainativudan Tondai Naduni boshqarishni davom ettirdi, qadimda Manipallavam deb atalgan.
- Pallava qiroli Aparajitani mag'lub etdi va Chola hududlarini Tondaimandalamgacha kengaytirdi. Chola shohligining markazlari Kanchi Kanchipuram va
- uning rejimi davrida Pallava hukmdorlaridan biri. Suv idishi atrofidagi joy tamil tilida thaangal deb nomlangan. U Pallava shohi tomonidan qurilganidek, bu joy
- Pulakeshin II jangda vafot etgan bo'lishi mumkin. Bir asr o'tgach, Chalukya Vikramaditya II Pallava poytaxti Kanchipuramga g'alaba bilan kirib keldi va uni egallab oldi.
- u Tirukannapuramda Bhatavatsalani ko'rayotganini his qilgan Azvarning tushida paydo bo'lgan. Ma'bad 9 -asrning Pallava davrida qurilgan
- Kanchipuramda ularning kuchi Mahendravarman I 571 630 va Narasimxavarman I 630 668 davrida kuchaygan, janubda Pallavalar hukmronlik qilgan.
- asr. Pallavalar shu paytgacha faqat noib bo'lganlar, keyin Kanchipuram va uning atrofidagi hududlarning mustaqil hukmdorlari bo'lishdi. Pallavalar hukmronlik qilishdi
- epik Mahabaratha. U dastlab VIII asrda Pallavalar tomonidan qirol Narasimxavarman I. tomonidan qurilgan. Ma'badda Vishnuning beshta shakli tasvirlangan: Narasimha
- 22 -chi - Osiyoda, 40 -chi - dunyoda. CMA Chennai markaziy shahri va uning atrofidagi shaharlardan iborat, Kanchipuram Chengpattu va
- Pallava davridagi ma'bad va Hindiston Arxeologik xizmati tomonidan tasdiqlangan meros tuzilmasi shu chekkada joylashgan. Eng qadimgi ibodatxonalardan biri
- Tondaimandalam hududiga bostirib kirish va uning Pallava Nandivarman II ustidan keyingi g'alabalari va Kanchipuramning qo'shilishi Pallava sulolasi
- bu kichik shaharcha yaqinida. Vandalurdan Valajabodgacha bo'lgan yo'l Oragadam orqali Chennai va Kanchipuramni muqobil yo'l bilan bog'laydigan Padappai yo'li sifatida tanilgan.
Kanchipuram Pallava davridan oldingi davrda Vizual.
Tamil mamlakatida arianlashgan birinchi mintaqa hisoblanadi. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengarning fikricha, Pallavadan oldingi davrda bu mintaqa. Kanchipuram tayog'i. Pallava dengiz porti Mamallapuram o'zining g'or ibodatxonalari bilan mashhur, Mamallapuramdan atigi olti km shimolda, Kanchipuram tumani, Tamil Nadu, Hindiston, Sangam davrida Pallava oldidan qurilgan asl qurilish. Tamil Stevens Dining -dagi haykalning ma'nosi. Kanchipuram Pallavaning eski poytaxti bo'lgan va nasroniylik davridan to hozirgi kungacha Pondicherry shahri bo'lgan.
Kanchipuram - BLOG AKADEMIYASI.
Sangamdan oldingi davr. Sangam yoshi 700 728 Pallava Rajasimha Kanchipuramdagi Kailasanatha ma'badini va ko'plab qirg'oq ibodatxonalarini quradi. WBK Photography Kailasanathan Temple, Kanchipuram Facebook. Cheyyur, buni Kanchipuram yaqinidagi Cheyyar bilan chalkashtirib yubormang, Lordlar buti pallava davriga tegishli va yaqinidagi hovuzda topilgan.
Ajoyib Vaikunth Perumal ma'badi: Kanchipuram 3 -qism.
"WBK Photography" ning boshqa sahifalarini ko'ring. Kirish. Hisobni unutdingizmi? yoki. Yangi hisob yaratish. Xozir emas. Tegishli sahifalar. To'y oldidan tortishish. Fotosuratchi. Kanchipuram - San'at, tarix va arxitektura 1 -qism Aparnas blogi. Thirumoorthy ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, ziyoratgoh Pallava davriga to'g'ri keladigan eng katta g'ishtli ma'bad majmuasidir. Ma'bad allyuminiy yostiqqa qurilgan. Yaqinda qadimiy ma'bad qazish ishlari - Mahabalipuram III qism. Pallava davridan oldingi Kanchipuram Shimoliy Tamilnaduning Kanchipuram tumani Tamil mamlakatida arianlashgan birinchi mintaqa hisoblanadi. Pallavas Telugu shohlari? Quora. Opublikovano: 18 iyun. 2013 yil 2 -bo'lim Tamil Nadu san'ati va arxitekturasi Bepul TNPSC materiallari. XIII asr ibodatining yanada go'zal davridan oldin, odatda, Kanchipuramdagi Pallava davridagi ma'badda Natarajaning mavjudligini o'rganish, Narasimxavarman Pallavan II miloddan avvalgi 695 728 y.
Kanchipuram Pallava davridan oldingi pediyada.
A.J.V.ning so'zlariga ko'ra. var ezouid 1 Pre Pallava va Pallava davri, Page Kanchipuram - Janubiy Hindistonning eng qadimiy shaharlaridan biri va shahri. Kanchipuram qanday talaffuz qilinadi HowT. Kanchipuram so'zini o'z ichiga olgan iboralar: bekat Kanchipuram taluk Kanchipuram tumani Kanchipuram ipak Kanchipuram oldingi Pallava davrida. Kanchi seriyasi - Pallava go'zalligida yashirincha ... - sayohatchi. Panchovdan oldingi davrda Kanchipuram. Shimoliy Tamil -Naduning Kanchipuram tumani tamil mamlakatida arianlashgan birinchi mintaqa hisoblanadi.
Pallava sulolasi loyihasi Gutenberg o'z -o'zini nashr etish elektron kitoblarini o'qish.
VII asr pallava shohi Rajasimxon qurilishi. Kanchipuramdagi Vaigundaperumal ibodatxonasi ham o'sha davrda qurilgan. Oldingi ibodatxonalar yo yog'ochdan qurilgan, yoki g'orlarda yoki toshlarda tosh yuzlarga o'yilgan. Sangam davri Murugan ma'badi Mahabalipuramda topilgan. Projeljelnost: 3:46. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar Unionpedia, kontseptsiya xaritasi. "WBK Photography" ning boshqa sahifalarini Facebookda ko'ring. Kirish. Hisobni unutdingizmi? yoki. Yangi hisob yaratish. Xozir emas. Tegishli sahifalar. To'y oldidan tortishish. Fotosuratchi. Sleduyushchaya Voyti Nastroyki.
Hind tarixi 36 -qism: PALLAVA DINASTISanu Kainikara.
Miloddan avvalgi 275 yildan 897 yilgacha hukmronlik qilgan Pallavalar teluguslar edi. Andra viloyati, so'ngra hozirgi Tamilnadu kanchipuramigacha cho'zilgan. Tarixdan oldingi 20 -asrgacha Telugu qirolliklari va Hindiston xalqining tarixi qanday? Telugu Kannada tomonidan tug'ilganmi yoki o'sha davrda tug'ilganmi? Fayl: Thanjavur media Commons. Kanchi shahridagi ko'plab ibodatxonalar Pallava davriga to'g'ri keladi, lekin ko'pchilik bu tarixga ham tegishli. Ekambaresvar va.
Kailasanatha ibodatxonasiga sharh, Kanchipuram, Hindiston TripAdvisor.
Pallava davrining ahamiyati shundaki, bu VII asr boshlariga qadar hukmronlik qilgan The Pallavas, Pallavas Janubiy Hindiston tarixi BrainKart. Faylni o'sha paytdagi ko'rinishini ko'rish uchun sana vaqtini bosing. Tondaiman Kanchipuram Pallava davridan oldin Ramnad tamilining mulki. Kanchipuram ibodatxonasi Pallava davri VII IX asr. Tungi hayvonlar, tarixdan oldingi hayvonlar sektori, parrandachilar va sudraluvchilar Tirupporur - bu Pallava davriga oid qadimiy ibodatxona.
Kadiyalur Uruttirangannanar Mili, eng yaxshi pedia o'quvchi.
Pallavalarning kelib chiqishi haqida ilmiy kelishuv yo'q. Kanchipuram Pallava davrida muhim savdo markazi bo'lgan. janubda oriylar madaniyatining ta'siri brahmanlarga berilgan ustun mavqe edi. Subrahmanya ibodatxonasi, Saluvankuppam elektron kitoblar kutubxonasi. Aynan shu davrda Pallava uslubi o'ziga xoslikka to'liq erishdi. Chalukyalar va Rashtrakutalar tosh kesish san'atining mavjud an'analarini davom ettirdilar. Mamallapuram va Kanchipuram, bu erda Pallava rassomlari ataylab va. Kanchi Silks Janubiy Hindiston Jainizm Scribd. Shimoliy Tamil -Nadu okrugi tamil mamlakatida arianlashgan birinchi mintaqa hisoblanadi. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar bunga ishonadi. ELBON konferentsiyalari va tadbirlari Pvt Ltd. 1 Pallava davri tosh kesishdan to gavjum davrga o'tishga guvohlik beradi. Bu davrning eng yaxshi namunalari Mahabalipuramdagi qirg'oq ibodatxonasi va Kanchi kabi rivojlanishdan oldingi xavflarning ko'pini o'z zimmasiga oladi.
Tondaimandalam tondaimandalam sinonimlari.
Kanchipuramni Pallavalar, O'rta asr Xolalari, Keyingi Xolalar, Keyinchalik Pandyalar, Shuningdek qarang: Pallava davridan oldingi Kanchipuram. Mamallapuramdagi katta yordam Xon akademiyasi maqolasi. Pallava boy merosidan qadimiy Vishnu ibodatxonasi diqqatga sazovordir. va Rabbiyning darshoni oldida marosim vannasining talabi. Alvar va Pallava davridagi mis plastinka yozuvlari.
Tamil Nadu san'ati va me'moriy binolarining tarixiy tahlili.
Kanchipuram ba'zan oddiygina Kanchi deb nomlanadi yoki Kanci - qadimiy shahar Bu shahar bir paytlar miloddan avvalgi 4-9 asrlarda Pallavasning poytaxti bo'lgan. nashr etilishidan oldin ishonchlilik va akademik standartlarga rioya qilish. Pallava davri yuqori aniqlikdagi fotosuratlar va tasvirlar. Bu sirli san'at asari milodiy III -IX asrlarda Pallava sulolasi davrida, miloddan avvalgi yaqinidagi poytaxt Kanchipuramda, Mamallapuramni port shahri sifatida ishlatganda, miloddan avvalgi VII va VIII asrlarda Pallava qoidasi eng yuqori cho'qqiga chiqqan. tayyor kurslar matematika: o'rta maktab va. Qazilgan Sangam davridagi Subramanya ibodatxonasining qoldiqlari. Pandyan, Jeeva Samadxi, Tamil buddizmi, Pallava davridagi Kanchipuram, Genri Alfred Krishnapillay. Velirs, Vedanayagam Sastriar, Tamil tarixi. Pallava sulolasi tarixi Qadimgi Hindiston sulolalari YouTube. Karnata Draviaviya, XIII -XIV asrlar yaqinidagi Pallava poytaxti Kanchipuramda yo'qolganidan keyin, Kaylanasatha Bu ibodatxonalar faqat Chidambaramga qaraganda davrni ko'proq ifodalaydi. Janubiy Hindiston qirolliklari Pallavas, Chalukyas va Rashtrakutas, Xolas. Mahabalipuram - miloddan avvalgi VIII asrda, Pallava davrining xazinasi, Pallavadan oldingi davrga oid.
Kitoblar MChJ ASQ Orange Empire.
, bu mintaqa sanskrit madaniyatining eng janubiy forposti edi. Pallava sulolasi xaritasi, Pallava imperiyasi xaritalari Hindiston. Kanchipuram qaerga kiradi, chunki biz pallava davridan oldin gapiramiz va shuni ko'rsatadiki, kanchi hatto eng yirik shahar emas edi. Erta tamil madaniyatining Vedik ildizlari CiteSeerX. Shuningdek qarang: Pallava davridan oldingi Kanchipuram. har ikki tomonida haykallar qo'yilgan ma'bad uchastkasi. Kanchipuram Kailasanathar ibodatxonasidagi haykallar. Tadqiqot jurnalining sharhi: Xalqaro oylik ilmiy. Pallavas Tamil poytaxti Kanchi Kanchi shahridagi mashhur o'quv markazini nomlang. Yozuvda Pallava davridagi vokal musiqasining notasi haqida eslatma bor. PALLAVAS UPSC STUDYMATERIALS. Pallava sulolasi hukmronligi davrida, miloddan avvalgi III asrdan VII asrgacha va shu hududdan qazib olingan boshqa asarlar, shuningdek, Mahabalipuram yoki Kanchipuram bo'lishi mumkin.
Kanchipuram RhymeZone bilan iboralar.
Garchi bugungi kunda bu ziyoratchilar uchun asosiy manzil va yirik arxitektura yodgorliklari ombori bo'lsa -da, antik davrda u tarixda eng muhim o'rinni egallagan. Manzil Tamil Nadu: Mamallapuram Indtravelni ko'rish uchun joylar. Chola Nadu - Hindiston janubidagi Tamil Nadu shtatining viloyati. U Pallava oldidan Kanchipuramni o'z ichiga oladi. Kanchipuram. Kanchipuram pedia, bepul ensiklopediya. Pallavalarning kelib chiqish nazariyalari: Pallavadan oldingi Kanchipura tarixi. Pahlava? o'z davrining har qanday yozuvida Kanchi Pallavalari bilan bog'liq. XAVFSIZ SINOPSIS: 20 NOYABR 2018 INSIGHTSIAS. Ma'bad Tamil Nadusning Muruganga qadimiy ziyoratgohidir. Bu, shuningdek, Pallava shahridan oldingi ikkita ibodatxonalardan biri, deb ishoniladi, ikkinchisi.
Pallavas sulolasi | Kanchipuram Pallavas hukmdorlari ro'yxati va ularning hissalari
Pallava sulolasi Janubiy Hindiston hukmron sulolalaridan biri bo'lib, Pallavalar feodatorlik qilgan Satavaxanalar sulolasi tutilishidan keyin mashhur bo'lgan. Ular me'morchilikning homiysi edi, eng yaxshi misol - Mahabalipuramdagi YuNESKOning Butunjahon merosi ro'yxatidagi Shor ibodatxonasi. Ular Pallava skriptini ishlab chiqdilar, natijada Grantha kelib tushdi, natijada Janubi -Sharqiy Osiyodagi boshqa bir qancha yozuvlar paydo bo'ldi. Bu erda biz Kanchipuramning Pallavas hukmdorlari ro'yxatini va ularning umumiy xabardorlikka qo'shgan hissalarini beramiz.
Kanchipuram Pallavas hukmdorlari ro'yxati va ularning hissalari
Kanchipuram Pallavas hukmdorlarining nomi
2. U janubdagi Kanchipuram (Kanchi) dan tashqarida o'z vakolatlarini kengaytirgan birinchi Pallava monarxi edi.
3. O'g'li Mahendravarman I tomonidan yozilgan dramada Mattavilasa Praxasanada (mast holda o'yin -kulgi) buyuk g'olib sifatida tasvirlangan.
1. U Simxavishnuning o'g'li bo'lib, Kalabxralarni mag'lubiyatga uchratib, Pallava podsholigini tikladi.
2. Tamil adabiyoti uning hukmronligi davrida gullab -yashnadi, mashhurligi oshdi Tevaram tomonidan yozilgan Appar va Sambandxar.
3. U Mattavilasa Prahasana spektakli va Bhagavadajjuka nomli yana bir spektakl muallifi edi.
4. U qurdi besh hujayrali g'or ma'badi Pallavaramda Kokarnesvarar ibodatxonasiva Pudukottai Tirukokarnam, Tamil Nadu.
5. U dastlab Jain e'tiqodining homiysi edi, lekin uning ta'siri ostida Siva avliyosi Appar Saiva diniga homiylik qildi.
1. U shuningdek, sifatida tanilgan Mamallan (buyuk kurashchi) va Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram) uning nomi bilan atalgan.
2. U otasi Mahendravarman I ning san'atga bo'lgan muhabbati bilan o'rtoqlashdi va Mahendravarman boshlagan ishni tugatdi Mamallapuram.
3. Uning hukmronligi davrida xitoy sayyohi Hiuen Tsang 640 yilda Kanchipuramga tashrif buyurgan.
1. U 630-668 yillarda hukmronlik qilgan Narasimxavarman I ning o'g'li edi.
2. Uning o`rniga o`g`li Paramesvaravarman I o`tdi.
1. U samarali va qobiliyatli hukmdor bo'lib, o'zining harbiy ekspluatatsiyalari, she'riyatga bo'lgan muhabbati va ko'plab ibodatxonalar qurgan Sivaga sadoqati bilan mashhur edi.
2. Uning o'rnini milodiy 695 yilda uning o'g'li Narasimxavarman II egalladi, uni Rajasimha deb ham atashdi.
1. U Pallavasning Mahendravarman I va Narasimxavarman I kabi buyuk hukmdorlaridan biri edi.
2. U Mahabalipuramdagi Sohil ibodatxonasini, Isvara va Mukunda ibodatxonalarini, Janubiy Arkotdagi Panamalay ibodatxonasini, bundan tashqari Kanchipuramdagi Kailasanathar va Vaikuntha-Perumal ibodatxonalarini qurdi.
3. U Shivaning buyuk fidoyisi edi va Kanchipuramdagi Kailasanathar ibodatxonasini qurdi.
1. U 728 yildan 731 yilgacha hukmronlik qilgan.
2. U Chalukya qiroli Vikramaditya II tomonidan o'ldirilgan.
3. U Pallavas Simxavishnu chizig'ining oxirgi hukmdori edi.
1. U Pallava hukmdori edi, lekin Simxavishnu oilasidan bo'lmagan.
2. U milodiy 720 - 796 yillarda hukmronlik qilgan.
3. U qurdi Vaikuntha-Perumal ibodatxonasi.
4. U yozish, she'riyat, musiqa va falsafa kabi ko'plab san'at sohalarida iqtidorli intellektual edi.
5. U kabi ma'bad dramatize qilingan raqs ibodatini kuchaytirdi Kutiyattam va chakyar kootu o'ziga xos ko'plab spektakllar bilan.
1. U Nandivarman II ning o'g'li edi.
1. U Dantivarmanning o'g'li va Nandivarman II ning nabirasi edi.
2. U otasi davrida boshlangan tanazzulni qaytarishga harakat qilgan kuchli monarx edi.
3. U kuchli dengiz flotiga ega edi va Siam va Malaya bilan savdo aloqalarini saqlab turdi.
1. U Pallavas sulolasining oxirgi hukmdori edi.
2. Stilistik an'analardan oxirgi ma'lum foydalanish uning topshirig'i bilan qilingan.
3. Milodiy 897 yilda Aditya I (Chola hukmdori) tomonidan jang maydonida o'ldirilgan.
Pallavalar Chalukyasning zamondoshlari edi. Sangam adabiyoti, ya'ni Manimekalay, birinchi Pallava shohining kelib chiqishini Manipallava shohi Pilli Valay (Pilivalai) ismli Chola qizlari bilan Chola shohi o'rtasidagi aloqadan kelib chiqadi. Yuqoridagi Kanchipuram Pallavas hukmdorlari ro'yxati va ularning hissalari o'quvchilarning umumiy bilimini oshiradi.
Kailasanathar ibodatxonasi - Kanchipuramdagi Shiva ibodatxonasining eng qadimiysi
Kanchipuramdagi Kailasanathar ibodatxonasi Kanchi Kamakshi va Ekambaresvar ibodatxonalaridan keyin men tashrif buyurgan uchinchi katta ma'bad edi. Avvalgi ikkala ma'bad ham Shakti yoki bag'ishlanish energiyasiga shunchalik to'lgan ediki, men mashinam Kailasnathar ma'badi oldida to'xtaganimda, men hali ham o'ralgan edim. Ma'bad oldidagi aravaga bir qator bronza Murtis yig'ilgani meni kutib oldi.
Endi bu ma'bad olimlar sevadigan ma'baddir. Ular bu ma'bad haqida ko'p yozishgan, devorlaridagi har bir haykalni talqin qilishgan. Ular shu qadar ko'p aura qurdilarki, men bu ma'badni ziyorat qilishdan juda xursand bo'ldim. Biroq, men uni boshqa ibodatxonalarga qaraganda ancha kichik va yakka ma'bad deb topdim. Men sentyabr oyida ma'badga tashrif buyurgan yagona odam edim. Menda hammasi bor edi.
Bu hayratlanarli darajada chiroyli va hayratlanarli. Tiniq ko'k osmon haykal devorlariga o'z yorqinligini qo'shdi.
Meditatsiya g'orlari yoki ziyoratgohlari
Men Kanchipuramdagi Kailasnathar ibodatxonasidagi meditatsiya g'orlari tasvirlarini o'qiganman va hatto ko'rganman. Biroq, men ma'bad oldida 8 kishidan iborat qatorni, xuddi ma'badni qalqon qilib turgan ekranga o'xshab kutmagan edim. Aslida, asosiy ma'bad oldidagi bu 8 ta g'or - Shivalinga o'rnatilgan 8 ta ziyoratgoh.
Gopuram orqali o'tadigan asosiy eshik bu g'or ziyoratgohlari orasida assimetrik tarzda, bir tomonda 2, oltitasida. Arxitektura o'ziga xosdir, shuning uchun arxitektura va san'atshunoslik talabalari uni qiziqtirishi ajablanarli emas. Afsonaviy hayvon sherlari shaklida o'yilgan dumaloq ustunlar Pallava sulolasining imzosi.
Ma'badni aylanib o'tadigan Prakara deb nomlangan ma'bad devorining atrofida kichik meditatsiya g'orlari bor. Yoki ular haqiqatan ham asosiy ziyoratgohni o'rab turgan kichikroq ziyoratgohlarmi? Ular bir kishining o'tirishiga ruxsat beradigan darajada katta. Harakat qilish yoki atrofga qarash uchun joy yo'q. Meditatsiya g'orlariga qaragan devorlar asosan Shiva-Parvati haykallari bilan bo'yalgan va vaqti-vaqti bilan Ganesha haykallari bilan bo'yalgan. Haykallar qandaydir shaklda qolishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Rasmlarni faqat ulardan bir nechtasida qolganini tasavvur qilish mumkin.
Ulardan 50 tasi asosiy ma'badni o'rab olgan. Ularning maqsadi nima edi va ularning hammasiga sajda qilganda ma'bad qanday ko'rinishga ega edi, degan savolni o'ylash mumkin.
Dastlabki 8 ziyoratgohdan o'tib ma'badga kirdim. Men o'zimni yog'ochdan yasalgan ko'k eshik oldida, ikki tomonida ikkita ulkan Shiva haykali turganini ko'rdim. Ular kattaligi va oq rangi bilan ajralib turadi. Ular bir -biriga qaragan, lekin boshqa tomonga qarashgan. Ularning oyoqlari tagida Kanchipuramning hamma joylarida ko'rgan Pallava sherlari bor. Shixara ma'badi hali ham ko'rinmas edi.
Tabiiyki, kishi chapga qarab yuradi, go'yo parikrama yoki tavof qilishga tayyor. Men chap tomonimda bir qator meditatsiya g'orlari bilan yurardim, ularning har biri qiziqishimni oshirdi. Bir necha qadam o'tgach, asosiy ma'bad va uning go'zal Shixarasi paydo bo'ldi. Ko'zlarim va sezgim koridorlarning ikki tomoni o'rtasida kurashdi. Bir tomondan, bu noyob arxitektura, eng kichik tosh g'orlar, boshqa tomondan, Pallava arxitekturasining yana bir ajoyib namunasi bor edi. Devorlarning har bir ko'rinadigan qismidagi haykallar sehrli va maftunkor.
Asosiy ma'bad oldida ustunli mandapa turibdi. Hozircha yopiq. Bu ma'badning mustaqil mandapasi edi, keyinchalik ular asosiy ma'bad bilan qo'shilib, ularning orasiga Ard-Mandapa qurdilar. U erda turganingizda, siz nomutanosiblikni sezishingiz mumkin. Men mandapa va ma'badni bog'laydigan tekis devorlarsiz ma'bad qanday ko'rinishga ega bo'lishini tasavvur qilishga harakat qildim. Javob ancha muvozanatli va mutanosib.
Oldinda, ma'badga yon tomondan kirish bor. Ma'badni yolg'iz ruhoniy boshqaradi. Men Ekambareshvar ibodatxonasida yugurish bilan band bo'lgan ruhoniylar qo'shiniga qaraganda, u fidoyilarni kutayotganday tuyuldi. Aytgancha, bu uning odobli ekanligini yoki ruhoniy maqomi haqida kam ma'lumotga ega ekanligini anglatmaydi.
Ma'badning ichida ma'bad ancha sodda. Qora granitdan 16 yuzli Shivalinga bor. Shivalinga ortida Skiva yoki Kartik bilan Shiva, Uma bo'lgan Somaskanda tasviri bor. Men buni faqat Kanchipuram ibodatxonalarida ko'rganman.
Ma'badni aylanib o'tadigan juda tor parikrama yo'li. Bu shunchalik torki, men o'zimni klostrofob his qilib, aylanib o'tishga jur'at etolmadim. O'ylaymanki, bunday tor aylanma yo'lni qurishga nima sabab bo'lgan? Aslida, bu to'g'ri yo'l emas, siz zinapoyaga ko'tarilishingiz kerak, so'ngra boshqa tomondan emaklab, parikrama qilishingiz va chiqishda xuddi shu narsani takrorlashingiz kerak. Men negadir o'zimni qulay his qila olmadim, shuning uchun uni o'tkazib yubordim. Ruhoniy menga buni soat sohasi farqli o'laroq qilishni taklif qildi, bu biroz sodda edi, lekin mendagi hindular bu safar rozi bo'lmadilar.
Keyinchalik o'qiganman, bu qayta tug'ilish kabi falsafiy ma'noga ega. Ishonchim komil emas. Bu ko'proq shohlar o'zlari uchun quradigan strategik qochish yo'liga o'xshaydi.
Bu ma'badda piramidal Shixara bor, uning har birida haykallar tasvirlangan. Ko'rinib turibdiki, ular aytishi kerak bo'lgan hikoyalarni ushlab turganda, tosh plitalar bir -biriga juda nozik tarzda taqsimlangan. Tepasida gilosga o'xshab, sferik gumbazga o'xshash qoplama bor. Nandilar tepada joylashgan qatlamning to'rt tomonida o'tirishadi.
Qaerda turishingizdan qat'i nazar, siz sher ustunlar turkumini o'tkazib yubormaysiz. Agar siz ma'badga qaragan burchakda tursangiz, o'zingizni sherlar muqaddas joyida his qilasiz.
Shivaning har qanday shaklini devorlarda ko'rishingiz mumkin. Asosiy ma'badning orqa devori ortida Kartikeyanga bag'ishlangan bitta ziyoratgoh bor. Bu erda siz uning qora toshli Vigraxasini ko'rishingiz mumkin. U erda Durga haykallari va Saptamatrikalar bor.
Kailasanathar ibodatxonalari majmuasi
Bu ma'bad yakka o'zi ibodatxona bo'lib, uning majmuasida boshqa ma'bad yo'q. Ma'lumki, Kanchipuramda Shiva ibodatxonalarida Devi ibodatxonasi yo'q, bu Hindiston bo'ylab Shiva ibodatxonalarida odatiy holdir. Kanchipuramda Devi faqat o'z uyida yashaydi.
Men ma'badning orqa devori ortida meditatsiya g'orlariga qaragan bir nechta Nandi figuralarini ko'rdim. Menimcha, ular g'orlarda Shiva Vigrahas uchun.
Asosiy Nandi Mandap ma'baddan keng tarqalgan maysazorlardan 100 metr narida joylashgan. Nandi o'rta o'lchamli va ma'badga qaragan, garchi Linga va Nandini bir-biridan ajratib turadigan bir necha toshli qatlamlar bor. Mandanda to'rtta mustaqil ustun turadi, lekin ularning hammasi yamalgan ko'rinadi. Qizig'i shundaki, Nandi Mandap har doim shu qadar uzoq bo'lganmi yoki uni saqlab qolish bo'yicha olib borilgan.
When you walk in the lawns away from the temple, that is when you see the lions coming out of the outer wall at the regular intervals. I wonder if they were also free-standing pillars once and got plastered together later on. The Shikharas of smaller shrines or meditation caves is visible from the outside like a miniature version of the bigger one. Nandis sit in between them on the wall, as they do in every Shiva temple in Kanchipuram.
A tank is located diagonally across the temple at the other end of the lawns.
History and Architecture of Kailasnathar Temple, Kanchipuram
The temple in stone dates back to late 7th CE and is attributed to Pallava king Narsimhavarman II. The façade that seems to be built later was added by his son Mahendravarman II. It is believed that Rajaraja Chola who built the mighty Brihdeeswara temple in Thanjavur, was inspired by this temple.
The base of the temple is made in hard granite stone while most of the superstructure is in softer sandstone. The main shrine is almost rectangular as is its pyramidical shikhara. The meditation caves or the shrines surrounding the temple are a unique feature of this temple that I am yet to see elsewhere. They do remind me of the meditation caves at 84 Kutiya in Rishikesh.
It is probably a royal temple, built by the royal family, probably for their private Sadhna. It is now under ASI and they maintain this temple. The absence of devotees makes it like a relic of the past even though it is pretty much a practicing and living temple. I am told it is full of people on Shivratri as most Shiva Temples are.
What makes this important is the fact that this may be the first standalone stone temple in the region. Temples earlier to this were built by carving out the rocks in situ or what we know as cave temples. Many of these can be seen at Mahabalipuram nearby.
Pallava art and architecture
Pallava art and architecture represent an early stage of Dravidian art and architecture which blossomed to its fullest extent under the Chola Dynasty. The first stone and mortar temples of South India were constructed during Pallava rule and were based on earlier brick and timber prototypes.   
Starting with rock cut temples, built between 695AD and 722AD, and archaeological excavations dated to the 6th century and earlier.   Pallava sculptors later graduated to free-standing structural shrines which inspired Chola dynasty's temples of a later age. Some of the best examples of Pallava art and architecture are the Kailasanathar Temple at Kanchipuram, the Shore Temple and the Pancha Rathas of Mahabalipuram. Akshara was the greatest sculptor of their time.   
Pallava architecture was sub-divided into two phases: the rock cut phase and the structural phase. The rock cut phase lasted from the 610 AD to 668 AD and consisted of two groups of monuments, the Mahendra group and the Mamalla group. The Mahendra group is the name given to monuments constructed during the reign of Mahendravarman I (610 AD- 630 AD). The monuments of this group are invariably pillared halls hewn out of mountain faces. These pillared halls or mandapas follow the prototype of Jain temples of the period. The best examples of Mahendra group of monuments are the cave temples at Mandagapattu, Pallavaram and Mamandur.
The second group of rock cut monuments belong to the Mamalla group in 630 to 668 AD. During this period free-standing monolithic shrines called rathas (chariots) were constructed alongside pillared halls. Some of the best examples of this style are the Pancha Rathas and Arjuna's Penance at Mahabalipuram.
The second phase of Pallava architecture is the structural phase when free-standing shrines were constructed with stone and mortar brought in for the purpose. Monuments of this phase are of two groups - the Rajasimha group (690 to 800 AD) and the Nandivarman group (800 to 900 AD).  The Rajasimha group encompasses the early structural temples of the Pallavas when a lot of experimentation was carried out. The best examples of this period are the Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram and the Kanchi Kailasanathar Temple at Kanchipuram both constructed by Narasimhavarman II who was known as Rajasimha. The best example of the Nandivarman group of monuments is the Vaikunta Perumal Temple at Kanchipuram. During this period, Pallava architecture attained full maturity and provided the models upon which the massive Brihadeeswarar Temple of the Cholas at Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram and various other architectural works of note were constructed.
Pallavas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas
After the decline of the Sangam Age in the Tamil country, the Kalabhra rule lasted for about 250 years. Thereafter, the Pallavas established their kingdom in Tondaimandalam with its capital at Kanchipuram. Their rule continued till Tondaimandalam was captured and annexed by the Imperial Cholas in the beginning of the tenth century A.D.
There are different views on the origin of the Pallavas. They were equated with the Parthians, the foreigners who ruled western India. Another view was that the Pallavas were a branch of the Brahmin royal dynasty of the Vakatakas of the Deccan. The third view relates the Pallavas with the descendents of the Chola prince and a Naga princess whose native was the island of Manipallavam. But these theories on the origin of the Pallavas were not supported by adequate evidence. Therefore, the view that the Pallavas were the natives of Tondaimandalam itself was widely accepted by scholars. They are also identical with the Pulindas mentioned in the inscriptions of Asoka. When Tondaimandalam was conquered by the Satavahanas, the Pallavas became their feudatories. After the fall of the Satavahanas in the third century A.D., they became independent. The Pallavas issued their earlier inscriptions in Prakrit and Sanskrit because of their Satavahana connections, and also patronized Brahmanism.
The early Pallava rulers from 250 A.D. to 350 A.D. issued their charters in Prakrit. Important among them were Sivaskandavarman and Vijayaskandavarman. The second line of Pallava rulers who ruled between 350 A.D. and 550 A.D. issued their charters in Sanskrit. The most important ruler of this line was Vishnugopa who was defeated by Samudragupta during his South Indian expedition. The rulers of the third line who ruled from 575 A.D. to their ultimate fall in the ninth century issued their charters both in Sanskrit and Tamil. Simhavishnu was the first ruler of this line. He destroyed the Kalabhras and firmly established the Pallava rule in Tondaimandalam. He also defeated the Cholas and extended the Pallava territory up to the river Kaveri. Other great Pallava rulers of this line were Mahendravarman I, Narasimhavarman I, and Narasimhavarman II.
Mahendravarman I (600 – 630 A.D.)
The long-drawn Pallava – Chalukya Conflict began during his period. Pulakesin II marched against the Pallavas and captured the northern part of their kingdom. Although a Pallava inscription refers to the victory of Mahendravarman I at Pullalur, he was not able to recover the lost territory.
Mahendravarman I was a follower of Jainism in the early part of his career. He was converted to Shaivism by the influence of the Saiva saint, Thirunavukkarasar alias Appar. He built a Shiva temple at Tiruvadi. He assumed a number of titles like Gunabhara, Satyasandha, Chattakari (builder of temples) Chitrakarapuli, Vichitrachitta and Mattavilasa. He was a great builder of cave temples. The Mandagappattu inscription hails him as Vichitrachitta who constructed a temple for Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva without the use of bricks, timber, metal and mortar. His rock-cut temples are found in a number of places like Vallam, Mahendravadi, Dalavanur, Pallavaram, Mandagapattu and Tiruchirappalli. He had also authored the Sanskrit work Mattavilasa Prahasanam. His title Chitrakarapuli reveals his talents in painting. He is also regarded as an expert in music. The music inscription at Kudumianmalai is ascribed to him.
Narasimhavarman I (630-668 A.D.)
Narasimhavarman I was also known as Mamalla, which means ‘great wrestler’. He wanted to avenge the defeat of his father at the hands of Chalukya ruler Pulakesin II. His victory over Pulakesin II in the Battle of Manimangalam near Kanchi is mentioned in Kuram copper plates. The Pallava army under General Paranjothi pursued the retreating Chalukya army, entered Chalukya territory, captured and destroyed the capital city of Vatapi. Narasimhavarman I assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’. He regained the lost territory. Another notable achievement of Narasimhavarman I was his naval expedition to Sri Lanka. He restored the throne to his friend and Sri Lankan prince Rama Varma. During his reign, Hiuen Tsang visited the Pallava capital Kanchipuram. His description of Kanchi is vivid. He calls it a big and beautiful city, six miles in circumference. It had 100 Buddhist monasteries in which about 10,000 Buddhist monks lived. According to his account the people of Kanchi esteemed great learning and the Ghatika at Kanchi served as a great centre of learning. Narasimhavarman I was the founder of Mamallapuram and the monolithic rathas were erected during his reign.
Narasimhavarman II or Rajasimha (695 -722 A.D.)
Narasimhavarman I was succeeded by Mahendravarman II and Parameswara Varman I and the Pallava – Chalukya conflict continued during their reign. Thereafter, Narasimhavarman II became the ruler of the Pallava kingdom. He was also known as Rajasimha. His regime was peaceful and he evinced more interest in developing the art and architecture. The Shore temple at Mamallapuram and the Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram were built in this period. He was also a great patron of art and letters. The famous Sanskrit scholar Dandin is said to have adorned his court. He sent embassies to China and the maritime trade flourished during his reign. Rajasimha assumed titles like Shankara Bhakta, Vadhyavidyadhara and Agamapriya. He was succeeded by Parameswaravarman II and Nandivarman II. The Pallava rule lasted till the end of the ninth century A.D. The Chola king Aditya I defeated the last Pallava ruler Aparajita and seized the Kanchi region. With this, the rule of the Pallava dynasty came to an end.
Administration of the Pallavas
The Pallavas had a well-organized administrative system. The Pallava state was divided into Kottams. The Kottam was administered by officers appointed by the king. The king was at the centre of administration in which he was assisted by able ministers. He was the fountain of justice. He maintained a well-trained army. He provided land-grants to the temples known as Devadhana and also to the Brahmans known as Brahmadeya. It was also the responsibility of the central government to provide irrigation facilities to the lands. A number of irrigation tanks were dug by the Pallava kings. The irrigation tanks at Mahendravadi and Mamandoor were dug during the reign of Mahendravarman I. Detailed information on the tax system could also be traced from the Pallava inscriptions. Land tax was the primary source of the government revenue. The Brahmadeya and Devadhana lands were exempted from tax. Traders and artisans such as carpenters, goldsmiths, washer-men, oil-pressers and weavers paid taxes to the government. The Pallava inscriptions throw much light on the village assemblies called sabhas and their committees. They maintained records of all village lands, looked after local affairs and managed temples.
Society under the Pallavas
The Tamil society witnessed a great change during the Pallava period. The caste system became rigid. The Brahmins occupied a high place in the society. They were given land-grants by the kings and nobles. They were also given the responsibility of looking after the temples. The Pallava period also witnessed the rise of Saivism and Vaishnavism and also the decline of Buddhism and Jainism. The Saiva Nayanmars and the Vaishnava Alwars contributed to the growth of Saivism and Vaishnavism. This is known as the Bhakti Movement. They composed their hymns in the Tamil language. These hymns revealed the importance of devotion or Bakthi. The construction of temples by the Pallava kings paved the way for the spread of these two religions.
Education and Literature
The Pallavas were great patrons of learning. Their capital Kanchi was an ancient centre of learning. The Ghatika at Kanchi was popular and it attracted students from all parts of India and abroad. The founder of the Kadamba dynasty, Mayurasarman studied Vedas at Kanchi. Dinganaga, a Buddhist writer, came to study at Kanchi. Dharmapala, who later became the Head of the Nalanda University, belonged to Kanchi. Bharavi, the great Sanskrit scholar lived in the time of Simhavishnu. Dandin, another Sanskrit writer, adorned the court of Narasimhavarman II. Mahendravaraman I composed the Sanskrit play Mattavilasa Prahasana. Tamil literature had also developed. The Nayanmars and Alwars composed religious hymns in Tamil. The Devaram composed by Nayanmars and the Nalayradivyaprabandam composed by Alwars represent the religious literature of the Pallava period. Perundevanar was patronized by Nandivarman II and he translated the Mahabharata as Bharathavenba in Tamil. Nandikkalambagam was another important work but the name of the author of this work is not known. Music and dance also developed during this period.
Pallava Art and Architecture
It was a great age of temple building. The Pallavas introduced the art of excavating temples from the rock. In fact, the Dravidian style of temple architecture began with the Pallava rule. It was a gradual evolution starting from the cave temples to monolithic rathas and culminated in structural temples. The development of temple architecture under the Pallavas can be seen in four stages.
Mahendravarman I introduced the rock-cut temples. This style of Pallava temples are seen at places like Mandagappattu, Mahendravadi, Mamandur, Dalavanur, Tiruchirappalli, Vallam, Siyamangalam and Tirukalukkunram.
The second stage of Pallava architecture is represented by the monolithic rathas and Mandapas found at Mamallapuram. Narasimhavarman I took the credit for these wonderful architectural monuments. The five rathas, popularly called as the Panchapanadava rathas, signifies five different styles of temple architecture. The mandapas contain beautiful sculptures on its walls. The most popular of these mandapas are Mahishasuramardhini Mandapa, Tirumurthi Mandapam and Varaha Madapam.
In the next stage, Rajasimha introduced the structural temples. These temples were built by using the soft sand rocks. The Kailasanatha temple at Kanchi and the Shore temple at Mamallapuram remain the finest examples of the early structural temples of the Pallavas. The Kailasanatha temple at Kanchi is the greatest architectural masterpiece of the Pallava art. The last stage of the Pallava art is also represented by structural temples built by the later Pallavas. The Vaikundaperumal temple, Muktheeswara temple and Matagenswara temples at Kanchipuram belong to this stage of architecture. The Pallavas had also contributed to the development of sculpture. Apart from the sculptures found in the temples, the ‘Open Art Gallery’ at Mamallapuram remains an important monument bearing the sculptural beauty of this period. The Descent of the Ganges or the Penance of Arjuna is called a fresco painting in stone. The minute details as well as the theme of these sculptures such as the figures of lice-picking monkey, elephants of huge size and the figure of the ‘ascetic cat’ standing erect remain the proof for the talent of the sculptor.
Music, dance and painting had also developed under the patronage of the Pallavas. The Mamandur inscription contains a note on the notation of vocal music. The Kudumianmalai inscription referred to musical notes and instruments. The Alwars and Nayanmars composed their hymns in various musical notes. Dance and drama also developed during this period. The sculptures of this period depict many dancing postures. The Sittannavasal paintings belonged to this period. The commentary called Dakshinachitra was compiled during the reign of Mahendravarman I, who had the title Chittirakkarapuli. Besides the Pallavas, the Western Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan constitute important political forces. Both these kingdoms had their rivals in the far south, namely the Pallavas and later the Cholas. Their period has also been important in the history of India for their cultural contributions.
Chalukyas (543 – 755 A.D.)
The Western Chalukyas ruled over an extensive area in the Deccan for about two centuries after which the Rashtrakutas become powerful. The family of Western Chalukyas had its offshoots like the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi and the Chalukyas of Kalyani. Pulakesin I was the founder of the Chalukya dynasty. He established a small kingdom with Vatapi or Badami as its capital.
Pulakesin II (608-642 A.D.)
The most important ruler of this dynasty was Pulakesin II. The Aihole inscription issued by him gives the details of his reign. He fought with the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas of Mysore and established his suzerainty. Durvinita, the Ganga ruler accepted his overlordship and even gave his daughter in marriage to Pulakesin II. Another notable achievement of Pulakesin II was the defeat of Harshavardhana on the banks of the river Narmada. He put a check to the ambition of Harsha to conquer the south. In his first expedition against the Pallavas, Pulakesin II emerged victorious. But he suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of Narasimhavarman I near Kanchi. Subsequently, the Chalukya capital Vatapi was captured and destroyed by the Pallavas. The most important event in the reign of Pulakesin II was the visit of Hiuen Tsang to his kingdom. The successor of Pulakesin II was Vikramaditya. He once again consolidated the Chalukya kingdom and plundered the Pallava capital, Kanchi. Thus, he had avenged his father’s defeat and death at the hands of the Pallavas. Kirtivarman II was the last of the rulers of the Chalukyas. He was defeated by Dantidurga, the founder of the Rashtrakutas dynasty. Administration and Social Life under the Chalukyas The Chalukya administration was highly centralized unlike that of the Pallavas and the Cholas. Village autonomy was absent under the Chalukyas. The Chalukyas had a great maritime power. Pulakesin II had 100 ships in his navy. They also had a small standing army. The Badami Chalukyas were Brahmanical Hindus but they gave respect to other religions. Importance was given to Vedic rites and rituals. The founder of the dynasty Pulakesin I performed the asvamedha sacrifice. A number of temples in honour of Vishnu, Siva and other gods were also built during this period. Hiuen Tsang mentioned the decline of Buddhism in western Deccan. But Jainism was steadily on the path of progress in this region. Ravikirti, the court poet of Pulakesin II who composed the Aihole inscription was a Jain.
Art and Architecture
The Chalukyas were great patrons of art. They developed the vesara style in the building of structural temples. However, the vesara style reached its culmination only under the Rashtrakutas and the Hoysalas. The structural temples of the Chalukyas exist at Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal. Cave temple architecture was also famous under the Chalukyas. Their cave temples are found in Ajanta, Ellora and Nasik. The best specimens of Chalukya paintings can be seen in the Badami cave temple and in the Ajanta caves. The reception given to a Persian embassy by Pulakesin II is depicted in a painting at Ajantha. The Chalukya temples may be divided into two stages. The first stage is represented by the temples at Aihole and Badami. Among the seventy temples found at Aihole, four are important.
- Ladh Khan temple is a low, flat-roofed structure consisting of a pillared hall.
- Durga temple resembles a Buddha Chaitya.
- Huchimalligudi temple.
- The Jain temple at Meguti.
Among the temples at Badami, the Muktheeswara temple and the Melagutti Sivalaya are notable for their architectural beauty. A group of four rock-cut temples at Badami are marked by high workmanship. The walls and pillared halls are adorned by beautiful images of gods and human beings.
The second stage is represented by the temples at Pattadakal. There are ten temples here, four in the northern style and the remaining six in the Dravidian style. The Papanatha temple is the most notable in the northern style. The Sangamesvara temple and the Virupaksha temple are famous for their Dravidian style. The Virupaksha temple is built on the model of the Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram. It was built by one of the queens of Vikramaditya II. Sculptors brought from Kanchi were employed in its construction.
Rashtrakutas (755 – 975 A.D.)
The Rashtrakutas were of Kannada origin and Kannada language was their mother tongue. Dantidurga was the founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. He defeated the Gurjaras and captured Malwa from them. Then he annexed the Chalukya kingdom by defeating Kirtivarman II. Thus, the Rashtrakutas become a paramount power in the Deccan. His successor Krishna I was also a great conqueror. He defeated the Ganges and the eastern Chalukyas of Vengi. He built the magnificent rock-cut monolithic Kailasa temple at Ellora. The next important king of this dynasty was Govinda III. He achieved victories over north Indian kingdoms.
His successor Amoghavarsha I (815- 880 A.D.) ruled for a long period of 64 years. He had lost control over Malwa and Gangavadi. Yet, his reign was popular for cultural development. He was a follower of Jainism. Jinasena was his chief preceptor. He was also a patron of letters and he himself wrote the famous Kannada work, Kavirajamarga. He had also built the Rashtrakuta capital, the city of Malkhed or Manyakheda.
Among the successors of Amoghavarsha I, Krishna III (936- 968 A.D.) was famous for his expeditions. He marched against the Cholas and defeated them at Takkolam. He marched further south and captured Tanjore. He went as far as Rameswaram and occupied it for some time. He built several temples in the conquered territories including the Krishneswara temple at Rameswaram. Throughout his reign he possessed the Tondaimandalam region including the capital Kanchi. After his death, the power of the Rashtrakutas declined.
The Rashtrakuta Empire was divided into several provinces called rashtras under the control of rashtrapati. They were further divided into vishayas or districts governed by vishayapatis. The next subdivision was bhukti consisting of 50 to 70 villages under the control of bhogapathi. These officers were directly appointed by the central government. The village administration was carried on by the village headmen. However, the village assemblies played a significant role in the village administration.
Society and Economy
The Hindu sects of Vaishnavism and Shaivism flourished during the period of Rashtrakutas. Yet, they did not affect the progress of Jainism under the patronage of Rashtrakuta kings and officers. Almost one third of the population of the Deccan were Jains. There were some prosperous Buddhist settlements at places like Kanheri, Sholapur and Dharwar. There was harmony among various religions. There was a college at Saratoga, situated in modern Bijapur district. An inscription gives details of this educational centre. It was run by the income from the endowments made by the rich as well as by all the villagers on occasions of functions and festivals. The economy was also in a flourishing condition. There was an active commerce between the Deccan and the Arabs. The Rashtrakuta kings promoted the Arab trade by maintaining friendship with them.
The Rashtrakutas widely patronized the Sanskrit literature. There were many scholars in the Rashtrakuta court. Trivikrama wrote Nalachampu and the Kavirahasya was composed by Halayudha during the reign of Krishna III. The Jain literature flourished under the patronage of the Rashtrakutas. Amoghavarsha I, who was a Jain patronized many Jain scholars. His teacher Jinasena composed Parsvabhudaya, a biography of Parsva in verses.
Another scholar unabhadra wrote he Adipurana, the life stories of various Jain saints. Sakatayana wrote the grammer work called Amogavritti. The great mathematician of this period, Viracharya was the author of Ganitasaram. The Kannada literature saw its beginning during the period of the Rashtrakutas. Amoghavarsha Kavirajamarga was the first poetic work in Kannada language. Pampa was the greatest of the Kannada poets. His famous work was Vikramasenavijaya. Ponna was another famous Kannada poet and he wrote Santipurana.
Art and Architecture
The art and architecture of the Rashtrakutas were found at Ellora and Elephanta. At Ellora, the most remarkable temple is the Kailasa temple. It was excavated during the reign of Krishna I. It is carved out of a massive block of rock 200 feet long, and 100 feet in breadth and height. The temple consists of four parts – the main shrine, the entrance gateway, an intermediate shrine for Nandi and mandapa surrounding the courtyard.
The temple stands on a lofty plinth 25 feet high. The central face of the plinth has imposing figures of elephants and lions giving the impression that the entire structure rests on their back. It has a three-tiered sikhara or tower resembling the sikhara of the Mamallapuram rathas. In the interior of the temple there is a pillared hall which has sixteen square pillars.
The Kailasa temple is an architectural marvel with its beautiful sculptures. The sculpture of the Goddess Durga is shown as slaying the Buffalo demon. In another sculpture Ravana was making attempts to lift Mount Kailasa, the abode of Siva. The scenes of Ramayana were also depicted on the walls. The general characteristics of the Kailasa temple are more Dravidian. Elephanta is an island near Bombay. It was originally called Sripuri. The Portuguese after seeing the large figure of an elephant named it Elephanta. The sculptural art of the Rashtrakutas reached its zenith in this place. There is a close similarity between the sculptures at Ellora and those in Elephanta. They might have been carved by the same craftsmen. At the entrance to the sanctum there are huge figures of dwara-palakas.
In the walls of the prakara around the sanctum there are niches containing the images of Shiva in various forms – Nataraja, Gangadhara, Ardhanareeswara and Somaskanda. The most imposing figure of this temple is Trimurthi. The sculpture is six metre high. It is said to represent the three aspects of Shiva as Creator, Preserver and Destroyer.
Pallava Dynasty Administration
Kingship was hereditary and, on some occasions, the king was being elected. Since Pallavas had a vast empire ranging from Nellore in the North to South Pennar River in the south a planned administration was required. Most of the kings were scholars and had good knowledge about the administration. Mostly the rulers of Pallavas followed the Mauryan system of administration.
The council of ministers consisted of officials variously called Matras, Mantris, etc. The king, however, was the supreme judicial authority. There were many servants in the king’s palace who held office hereditarily. The goldsmith and the minor poets in the court held such offices. The army consisted of the land army as well as the navy and the mode of fighting did not seriously differ from that of the earlier period. Salt manufacture was a monopoly of the state. Toddy tappers, the cattle breeders, the priestly community, the potters, the goldsmiths, textile dealers, weavers, oil mongers, brokers, dealers in milk products, armament makers, owners of public places, etc., were all taxed independently.
Hieun Tsang visited the Pallava Kingdom also. He says that the people were honest and followed Hinduism and Buddhism. They were also Jains. Mahendra Varman himself was a Jain before he started worshipping Lord Shiva. Thereafter, All the Pallavas kings worshipped either Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu and believed in Hinduism. But, they practiced tolerance towards other religions. The Pallava capital, Kanchi was a city of temples and Vedic learning. The Pallavas proved to be pretty generous rulers. Numerous villages were granted free of taxes to the Brahmanas by them. The Pallavas also found their colonies in Sumatra, which is present-day Indonesia, in the initial centuries of the Christian era.
Want to know more about the glorious past and Royal rule of the Pallavas. The Pallavas portrays every inch of the empire beautifully and unveils many facts and mysteries which were veiled for a long time. The Pallavas by G. Jouveau Dubreuil is really a beautiful depiction of The Royal history of The Pallavas.
Pallava Sculpture and Architecture
Pallavas sculpture have a lot of passion and we can see slender skills of the artists in the carving of the sculptures. Pallava dynasty was a famous dynasty in South India. The Pallava kings played a patron role to flourish art and architecture in their kingdom. The present Pallava art and sculptures are dated back to the 610 AD to 690 AD. Probably the rock cut caves also came into existence during the period of Pallavas. The kings of Pallavas encouraged the artists to construct the temples and replaced the old temples with innovative rock sculptures and architecture.
Pallavas and Their Style of Sculptures:
During the rule of Pallavas, the artists improved their skills of excavating temples from the rocks. There were special institutions to teach the techniques of carving the architecture. They brought the Dravidian style of art and introduced in the temple construction. The development of temple and architecture changed from one king to another. They brought the cave based constructing temples to structural temples. The Pallavas constructed many monuments around the temples. According to the Historians, the temple construction styles changed in four stages.
The great Mahendravarma I encouraged the rock cut temples, we can see them at Mahendravadi, Mamandur, Dalavanm, Vallan and some other places in Tamilnadu. We can see the second stage of Pallava style of temples at Mamallapuram. Here the temple’s architecture constructed by Monolithic rathas and Mandapas. Narasimhavarman constructed the temples with magnificent architectural monuments. The mandapas in the temples had the decorations with stunning sculptures, which were narrating the stories of Hindu epics.
Rock Cut Temples to Structural Temples:
Kanchipuram temples Muktheeswara, Matagenswara, and Vaikundaperumal temples belonged to the style of Pallava architecture. At the beginning of the Pallava dynasty the rock architecture in peak stage. The Pallavas encouraged structural temples. The Pallava king Mahendravarman I involved in the evolution of rock cut structural temples like Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram. During the 6th and 9th century most of the temples in Tamilnadu constructed in the style of Pallava architecture.
Unique Architecture of Vaikuntha Perumal Temple
There are few architectural and design elements that make this temple very different and special. Let me share some of them with you:
3 Tier Sanctum
This temple has 3 sanctums on three floors. Yes, you heard it right. Unlike a single sanctum in most temples, this one has three one on top of the other. 3 sanctums have 3 Vishnu images in 3 different poses.
Sanctum on the ground floor has Vishnu in a sitting position. There is a small mandapam in front of the Murti supported by the lion face pillars. The Vishnu Murti is large, almost overwhelms you with its size. It is believed that Vishnu advises the king in this sitting posture as Acharya.
The Murti on the first floor has the Vishnu is in lying pose known as Sheshashayee Vishnu, as he sleeps in the Kshirsagar. This murti rests in a rather smaller room with plain walls. In this pose, King serves Vishnu as a disciple would serve his Guru.
You can approach this middle floor through the staircase that goes around the temple. The catch is this floor is opened only on Ekadashi or the 11th of every fortnight of lunar calendar followed in India. I was there the next day and had to really request the priest to open it for me. He made me wait for 3 hours before opening it for less than a minute and after taking a promise that no photographs would be clicked.
Second floor used to have a Vishnu Murti (some say Krishna) in standing pose. The image has been stolen and no one knows where it is at the moment. So, this floor is closed and inaccessible. In this standing posture, it is believed Vishnu taught the king as many as 18 different art forms.
The architecture of the three floors is such that you can do circumambulation at each level & the staircase is not visible from anywhere in the temple complex.
3 floors, 3 Vishnu Murtis in 3 different poses – sitting, sleeping and standing. I am not sure if the order has any significance, but I found this architecture quite unique.
The staircase from behind the ground floor sanctum opens up a huge sculpture of Vishnu in sitting posture. It is probably the best-maintained sculpture in the temple complex.
Moat Around the Temple
The plinth of the main temple or sanctum sits below the level where you enter the temple. Or you can think of a moat separating the pillared corridor that runs around the temple and the platform on which the temple stands.
You naturally wonder how would the temple look when rains would fill up this area. I remember visiting Airateshwara Temple in Darasuram when it was full of water. The temple reflecting in the waters was a stunning scene. Though, here, space is limited to see the full reflection of the temple.
I found this feature quite unique in this temple. I am yet to understand if there is a practical reason to build the moat around the temple.
Walls with Stories
The walls of corridors surrounding the sanctum are full of stories. Now, most Hindu Temples have sculptures carved all around them. What makes this temple special is the fact that panels on the left walls depict the stories of Vishnu, whose home this temple is. On the other hand, stories of right wall depict the parallel stories from the life of King Nandivarman who is credited with building this temple.
This juxtaposition of parallels between the stories of Vishnu and the King makes these sculptures interesting.
24 sculpted panels tell the Krishna Katha. There are Ganga & Yamuna on walls. Some interesting stories include the inclusion of a temple architecture on the walls, of traders from far and wide indicating the trade connections of Kanchipuram in good old days.
Sculptures are not in great shape. It does not look like they faced any vandalism, but the stone has started eroding with time. I hope some kind of conservation can be taken up to preserve these stories.
Lion Pillars of Pallavas
Tapering pillars with their base carved in the shape of a sitting lion are the hallmark of Pallava architecture in Tamil Nadu. You see them almost everywhere in Kanchipuram too, for it was the capital of Pallavas for a long time.
At this temple, these pillars in a neat clean row, stand out. Like I said before, standing in front of the sculpted walls, they look like guarding the stories. The visual they present is stunning. As this temple is not really crowded, you do get to see them without anyone blocking the view.
You would notice different colors of different pillars from pale sandstone to a dark granite color. Even the stylistic details are different in pillars of different colors. This is because the pillars were restored during the Vijayanagara empire that much later ruled Kanchipuram. So, in a way, this tells you the history of temple restoration and gives you the imprint of each dynasty that contributed.
108 Divya Desam Temple
This temple is one of the 108 Vishnu temples that collectively make 108 Divya Desams. The followers of Vishnu make it a point to visit all of them in their lifetime. Kanchipuram alone has 14 of these 108 temples.
History of Vaikuntha Perumal Temple
This temple is the second oldest temple in Kanchipuram after Kailasanathar Temple. It was built by Pallava King Nandivarman II in late 7th CE or early 8th CE and later maintained by the ruling Cholas and Vijayanagara kings. This makes it one of the earliest stone temples with Dravidian architecture. It would inspire the later temples in the region.
During Nandivarman II’s time, the temple was called Parmeshwara Vishnugriham, after the original name of the king Parmeshwara. It later came to be known as Vaikuntha Perumal Temple. Perumal is the name used for Vishnu in Tamil country.
Vishnu here is known as Vaikunthnathan. He lives here with his consort Vaikunthavalli.
Temple tank is called Airammadha Teertham.
After I had admired the temple enough, I had this question – why was this beautiful Vishnu temple built in Shiva Kanchi when there is whole Vishnu Kanchi in Kanchipuram. Out, comes the story that explains it all.
The story says that King Viroacha who ruled from here was childless. He prayed to Shiva seeking the blessing of progeny. Shiva blessed him that Dwarpalas of Vishnu will be born to him as sons. In time he was blessed by two sons. They grew up as great Vishnu devotees and Vishnu lives here as Vaikunthnathan. Vaikuntha, as you know, is Vishnu’s Dham or heaven or home, as you like to perceive it.
To me, this legend brings the two main sects of Hinduism – Shaivas, and Vaishnavas together as followers of deities who respect each other and co-exist peacefully.
Vaikuntha Perumal Temple Festivals
Every Ekadashi, i.e. the 11th of every lunar month, a day associated with Vishnu is celebrated in the temple. Vaikuntha Ekadashi is a big festival apart from Ram Navmi and Krishna Janamasthmi.
As per D Dennis Hudson in his book on Vaikuntha Perumal Temple, the Murti in the middle floor is worshipped in 12 different forms of Vishnu –
Each form is worshipped for a lunar month beginning with the 10th of each month.
Unlike Varadaraja Perumal Temple in Vishnu Kanchi, this temple is visited by very few people. That lets you appreciate the nuances of the temple architecture. However, you find that buzz and energy missing that comes from the prayers of the devotees.